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Taraxacum officinale - Webb.

Common Name Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion
Family Asteraceae or Compositae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity[10]. There are reports that some people have suffered dermatitis as a result of touching the plant, this is probably caused by the latex in the leaves and stems[222].
Habitats A very common weed of grassland and cultivated ground[17].
Range Throughout most of the northern hemisphere, including Britain.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion


Taraxacum officinale Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:MatthiasKabel

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early spring, Late summer, Late spring, Mid summer, Mid spring. Form: Spreading or horizontal.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Taraxacum officinale is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Habitats

 Lawn; Meadow; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Root.
Edible Uses: Coffee;  Tea.

Leaves - raw or cooked[1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 33, 154]. When used in salads, they are rather bitter, though less so in the winter. Tender young leaves are considerably less bitter than older leaves[K]. The leaves are often blanched (by excluding light from the growing plant) before use[183]. This will make them less bitter, but they will also contain less vitamins and minerals[K]. A very nutritious food, 100g of the raw leaves contain about 2.7g. protein, 9.2g. carbohydrate, 187mg Calcium, 66mg phosphorus, 3.1mg iron, 76mg sodium, 397mg potassium, 36mg magnesium, 14000iu vitamin A, 0.19mg vitamin B1, 0.26mg vitamin B2, 35mg vitamin C[173]. Root - raw or cooked[5, 9, 12, 183]. Bitter. A turnip-like flavour[159]. Flowers - raw or cooked[102, 159]. A rather bitter flavour[K], the unopened flower buds can be used in fritters[183] and they can also be preserved in vinegar and used like capers[7]. Both the leaves and the roots are used to flavour herbal beers and soft drinks such as 'Dandelion and Burdock'[238]. The roots of 2 year old plants are harvested in the autumn, dried and roasted to make a very good coffee substitute[2, 4, 5, 12, 54, 159]. It is caffeine-free[213]. A pleasant tea is made from the flowers[12, 102]. They are also used to make wine - all green parts should be removed when making wine to prevent a bitter flavour[238]. The leaves and the roots can also be used to make tea.

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Aperient;  Cholagogue;  Depurative;  Diuretic;  Hepatic;  Hypoglycaemic;  Laxative;  Miscellany;  
Stomachic;  Tonic;  Warts.

The dandelion is a commonly used herbal remedy. It is especially effective and valuable as a diuretic because it contains high levels of potassium salts and therefore can replace the potassium that is lost from the body when diuretics are used[238]. All parts of the plant, but especially the root, are slightly aperient, cholagogue, depurative, strongly diuretic, hepatic, laxative, stomachic and tonic[4, 7, 9, 21, 54, 165, 176, 222, 238]. The root is also experimentally cholagogue, hypoglycaemic and a weak antibiotic against yeast infections[222]. The dried root has a weaker action[222]. The roots can be used fresh or dried and should be harvested in the autumn when 2 years old[4]. The leaves are harvested in the spring when the plant is in flower and can be dried for later use[9]. A tea can be made from the leaves or, more commonly, from the roots[213]. The plant is used internally in the treatment of gall bladder and urinary disorders, gallstones, jaundice, cirrhosis, dyspepsia with constipation, oedema associated with high blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint and skin complaints, gout, eczema and acne[238]. The plant has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, Meningococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, C. diphtheriae, Proteus etc[176]. The latex contained in the plant sap can be used to remove corns, warts and verrucae[7]. The latex has a specific action on inflammations of the gall bladder and is also believed to remove stones in the liver[7]. A tea made from the leaves is laxative[222]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Taraxacum officinale for dyspepsia, urnary tract infections, liver and gallbladder complaints, appetite loss (see [302] for critics of commission E).

Other Uses

Compost;  Cosmetic;  Dye;  Fruit ripening;  Latex;  Miscellany.

The flowers are an ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator[32]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. A liquid plant feed can be made from the root and leaves[54]. A low quality latex, which can be used for making rubber, can be obtained from the roots of this plant. A magenta-brown dye is obtained from the root[141]. The plant releases ethylene gas, this stunts the growth of nearby plants and causes premature ripening of fruits[14, 18]. A distilled water made from the ligules (thin appendages at the base of the leaf blades) is used cosmetically to clear the skin and is particularly effective in fading freckles[7].

Cultivation details

A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils[1], though it prefers a well-drained humus-rich neutral to alkaline soil in full sun or light shade[37, 238]. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -29°c[238]. The dandelion is a common weed of lawns and grassy places. Though it has a bitter flavour, the plant is often cultivated as a salad crop and as a medicinal plant, especially in parts of Europe. There are some named varieties with larger, more tender and less bitter leaves[183]. Dandelions can provide edible leaves all year round, especially if they are given a small amount of protection in the winter[K]. A valuable bee plant and an important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[4, 24, 30, 54], it grows well in a spring meadow[24]. A deep rooting plant, it has roots up to 1 metre long and brings up nutrients from lower levels of the soil[201]. An excellent plant to grow in lawns, if the lawn is cut no more than fortnightly then the dandelions will provide a good quantity of edible leaves[K]. Grows well with alfalfa[18, 201]. Another report says that it inhibits the growth of nearby plants[54]. This is probably a reference to the fact that the plant gives off ethylene gas, this gas is a hormone that promotes the premature ripening of fruits and also induces the premature fruiting of plants, thereby stunting their growth[14, 18]. T. officinale is not a valid name for this species, but no valid name has as yet been ascribed to it[200]. This is actually an aggregate species of many hundreds of slightly differing species. Most seed production is apomictic which means that plants produce seed non-sexually and all seedlings are clones of the parent, thus small differences are maintained. Special Features:Edible, Not North American native, Invasive, Naturalizing, Suitable for dried flowers, Extended bloom season in Zones 9A and above.

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Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame and either surface-sow or only just cover the seed. Make sure the compost does not dry out. Germination should take place within 2 weeks, though 2 weeks cold stratification may improve germination. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, choosing relatively deep pots to accommodate the tap root. Plant them out in early summer. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Expert comment

Author

Webb.

Botanical References

17200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Ralf   Sun Dec 16 16:46:59 2001

"Löwenzahn" flowers are used in northern Germany are used in northern Germany to make a delicious syrup (tastes like honey) and a jelly which is eaten on bread. I bought last summer Dandelion Jelly in the Fläming mountains just south of Berlin. The flower buds are traditionally used in Germany to make capers. The leafs are bleached like chicoree during the winter months in the cellar (it must be dark) and gives a delicious vegetable.Ralf

Your display doesn't work. I gave my name. The webmaster should correct that.

John Kallas   Sat Jul 14 2007

Making Dandelions Palatable by John Kallas, Ph.D. Issue #82 This is an article that explains how to understand and manage dandelion bitterness in food preparation. The article helps you enjoy dandelion flavor raw or cooked.

Giustin Zifulin   Mon Jul 28 2008

Unpleasant odor? I'm confused. I've smelled dandelions all over North America and in Italy and have always found the scent to be sweet and "sunny", for lack of a better term.

Alec   Tue Sep 23 2008

Khono   Wed Mar 18 2009

I agree with you, Giustin Zifulin. I too consider dandelion flowers to smell sunny. Rather mild and certainly not unpleasant.

   Apr 26 2011 12:00AM

Dandelion´s root and leaf have been scientifically proven as an herbal remedy against oxidative stress linked to arteriosclerosis.

   Jun 27 2011 12:00AM

To have tasty dandelion leaves harvest those growing in shady and wet places, plants that grow in humid and fast growing conditions with no hot sun or dry conditions. They will be less bitter. Then, boil them 1min, discard water, and stir dry them like you would do for other vegetables. They will be tasty like turnip leaves.

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