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Rubus occidentalis - L.

Common Name Black Raspberry
Family Rosaceae
USDA hardiness 3-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rich thickets, ravines and borders of woods[43], often in full shade[62] and preferring moist positions[159].
Range Eastern and Central N. America - New Brunswick to Ontario, south to Georgia and Missouri.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (1 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry


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Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Rubus occidentalis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit  Stem
Edible Uses: Tea

Fruit - raw or cooked and used in pies, preserves etc[2, 3, 34, 62, 85, 101, 183]. It is of variable quality, with the finest forms having a rich acid flavour[2]. The hemispherical fruit is about 15mm in diameter[200]. Young shoots - raw or cooked like rhubarb[101, 161, 183, 257]. They are harvested as they emerge through the soil in the spring, and whilst they are still tender, and then peeled[K]. A tea is made from the leaves and another from the bark of the root[161, 183], 257.

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent  Cathartic  Ophthalmic  Pectoral  Salve  TB  VD

The roots are cathartic[257]. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea[257]. The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs and toothache[257]. An infusion of the roots has been used as a wash for sore eyes[257]. The root has been used, combined with Hypericum spp, to treat the first stages of consumption[257]. An infusion of the astringent root bark is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery[213, 222]. The leaves are highly astringent[257]. A decoction is used in the treatment of bowel complaints[257]. A tea made from the leaves is used as a wash for old and foul sores, ulcers and boils[222, 257]. A decoction of the roots, stems and leaves has been used in the treatment of whooping cough[257].

Our new book Edible Shrubs is now available.

Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil.

Read More

Edible Shrubs Book

Other Uses

Dye

A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[168].

Special Uses

Food Forest

Cultivation details

Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[1, 11, 200]. Sometimes cultivated, especially in N. America, for its edible fruit[183], it is a parent of many named varieties[1, 34]. This species is a raspberry with biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die[200]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a running thicket former forming a colony from shoots away from the crown spreading indefinitely [1-2]. The root pattern is flat with shallow roots forming a plate near the soil surface [1-2]. The root pattern is suckering with new plants from underground runners away from the plant [1-2].

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The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

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Propagation

Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Australia, Canada, North America, USA,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Actinidia rubus Climber0.0 -  LMHSNM30 
Rubus abbreviansVermont blackberryShrub0.0 0-0  LMHSNM301
Rubus acaulisDwarf RaspberryPerennial0.1 -  LMHSNM31 
Rubus acer Shrub1.2 -  LMHSNM10 
Rubus adenophorus Shrub2.5 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Rubus adenotrichusMora ComunShrub2.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus affinis Shrub3.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Rubus alexeterius Shrub2.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus allegheniensisAlleghany Blackberry, Graves' blackberryShrub3.0 3-7 MLMHSNM321
Rubus almusMayes Dewberry, Garden dewberryShrub2.0 7-10  LMHSNM301
Rubus amabilis Shrub2.0 5-9  LMHSNM301
Rubus ampelinus Shrub3.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus arcticusArctic Bramble, Arctic raspberry, Dwarf raspberryPerennial0.2 2-7  LMHNM501
Rubus argutusHighbush Blackberry, Sawtooth blackberryShrub2.5 0-0  LMHSNM210
Rubus arizonicusArizona DewberryShrub0.2 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus australis Climber0.0 8-11  LMHSNM20 
Rubus avipes Shrub2.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus baileyanusBailey's dewberryShrub1.0 0-0  LMHSNDM20 
Rubus barbatus Shrub0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus bellobatusKittatinny BlackberryShrub2.0 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Rubus biflorus Shrub3.5 -  LMHSNM30 
Rubus bifronsHimalayan berry, Hybrid European blackberry, Hybrid blackberryShrub1.5 0-0  LMHSNM101
Rubus bloxamii Shrub0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus buergeri Shrub3.0 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Rubus caesiusDewberry, European dewberryShrub0.2 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Rubus calycinusWild RaspberryPerennial1.0 -  LMHSNM10 
Rubus canadensisAmerican Dewberry, Smooth blackberryShrub2.5 3-7  LMHSNM411
Rubus candicans Shrub0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus caucasicus Shrub0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Rubus caudatus  0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
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Expert comment

Author

L.

Botanical References

1143200

Links / References

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Readers comment

Pauline McCabe   Mon Jul 18 10:33:40 2005

The following appeared in 'Cancerdecisions.com' newsletter. 'In May, 2005, scientists at Louisiana State University showed that black raspberries contain antiangiogenic compounds that are capable of restraining tumor growth. Antiangiogenic compounds work by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels, without which tumors cannot expand. The Baton Rouge researchers discovered that berries contain a "highly potent antiangiogenic fraction that accounts for only one percent of the fresh weight of whole black raspberries." The scientists consider it natural and potent enough to use clinically as a "promising complementary cancer therapy" '

Link: cancer decisions

VPJ Hood   Wed Dec 6 2006

LSU Congrats----you are onto another American Indian medicine. P.S. they didn't test it on rats or dogs because humans don't have any of the identical parts as a rat or dog .How many animals do you plan to torture? how much $$$$$$$$ from grants from taxpayers???? Sincerely VPJ Hood.

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