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Typha domingensis - (Pers.)Steud.

Common Name Southern Cattail
Family Typhaceae
USDA hardiness 5-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Brackish to fresh marshes and pools in N. America at elevations from sea level to 2000 metres[43, 270].
Range Widespread in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Wet Soil Water Plants Full sun
Typha domingensis Southern Cattail


Typha domingensis Southern Cattail
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Stan_Shebs

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Typha domingensis is a PERENNIAL growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers wet soil and can grow in water.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

T. angustata. Bory-Chaubard.

Habitats

 Pond; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Leaves  Oil  Pollen  Root  Seed  Stem
Edible Uses: Oil

Roots - raw or cooked[145]. Rich in starch[105], it can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and then boiled to yield a sweet syrup. The root can also be dried, ground into a poder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereal flours. Rich in protein, this flour is used to make biscuits, bread, cakes etc[183]. The root contains a lot of fibre[193]. One way to remove this fibre is to peel lengths of the root that are about 20 - 25cm long, place them by a fire for a short while to dry and then twist and loosen the fibres when the starch of the root can be shaken out[193]. Young shoots in spring - raw or cooked[193]. An asparagus substitute. The inner core is eaten[172]. Base of mature stem - raw or cooked. It is best to remove the outer part of the stem. Young flowering stem - raw, cooked or made into a soup. Tastes like sweet corn[172]. Seed - cooked. The seed is rather small and fiddly to utilize, but has a pleasant nutty taste when roasted. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. Due to the small size of the seed this is probably not a very worthwhile crop[K]. Pollen - raw or cooked. A protein rich additive to flour used in making bread, porridge etc[105, 183]. It can also be eaten with the young flowers, which makes it considerably easier to utilize. The pollen can be harvested by placing the flowering stem over a wide but shallow container and then gently tapping the stem and brushing the pollen off with a fine brush[9]. This will help to pollinate the plant and thereby ensure that both pollen and seeds can be harvested[K].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent  Diuretic  Haemostatic  Miscellany  Vulnerary

The leaves are diuretic[218]. The pollen is astringent, desiccant, diuretic, haemostatic and vulnerary[176, 218]. It is used in the treatment of nose bleeds, haematemesis, haematuria, uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhoea, postpartum abdominal pain and gastralgia, scrofula and abscesses[176]. It is contraindicated for pregnant women[176]. The seed down is haemostatic[218]. The rootstock is astringent and diuretic[240].

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Other Uses

Biomass  Fibre  Insulation  Miscellany  Oil  Paper  Soil stabilization  Stuffing  Thatching  Weaving

The stems and leaves have many uses, they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc[145, 257]. They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc. A fibre obtained from the roots can be used for making string[193]. The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc. They have good insulating and buoyancy properties. The pollen is highly inflammable and is used in making fireworks. This plants extensive root system makes it very good for stabilizing wet banks of rivers, lakes etc.

Cultivation details

Grows in boggy pond margins or shallow water to 15cm deep[1, 200]. Requires a rich wet soil if it is to well[200]. Succeeds in sun or part shade[200]. Plants can be very invasive, spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site[200]. Typha domingensis aggressively invades and forms nearly pure stands in brackish or nutrient-enriched wetlands in the Florida Everglades and elsewhere. It is established but does not mature fruits on the cold coast of northern California[270].

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Propagation

Seed - surface sow in a pot and stand it in 3cm of water. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible and, as the plants develop, increase the depth of water. Plant out in summer. Division in spring. Very easy, harvest the young shoots when they are about 10 - 30cm tall, making sure there is at least some root attached, and plant them out into their permanent positions.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Kaylampa, Lesser cats tail, Malo, Maranda, Poorteetch, Reedmace, Tabua, Wonga, , al-sa’ait, al-sa’d, bardi, cattail, cattail (typha domingensis), cumbungi, enugajamu, ghaabaajariyu, gondpater, gundra, gundra? (rhizome and fruit), gun?ha?, gu??ha?, hogalap, jammugaddi, lesser indian reed-mace, lesser reed-mace, narrow-leaf cumbungi, paankanis, pater, piripepe, pirivevýi, ramban, semercik koza, southern cattail, totora.

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Africa, Asia, Australia*, Central America, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Africa, East Timor, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guiana, Guinea, Guinée, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Iraq, Jamaica, Mozambique, New Zealand, North America, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, SE Asia, Senegal, South America*, Suriname, Tasmania*, Timor-Leste, USA, Venezuela, West Africa, West Indies*, Zambia,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Least Concern

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Sparganium stoloniferum 11
Typha angustifoliaSmall Reed Mace, Narrowleaf cattail53
Typha bungeana 43
Typha davidiana 43
Typha elephantinaBora. Elephant grass, Indian reed-mace.33
Typha glaucaHybrid cattail40
Typha latifoliaReedmace, Broadleaf cattail, Bullrush, Nailrod53
Typha laxmannii 41
Typha minima 23
Typha orientalisBroadleaf Cumbungi43

 

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Expert comment

Author

(Pers.)Steud.

Botanical References

50200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

Readers comment

Delida Acosta   Sat Aug 7 01:49:21 2004

Right now I am studying the growth and effect of this plant Typha d. in a constructed system , so I would like to know about this plant, references etc....

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