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Mangifera indica - L.

Common Name Mango, Bowen Mango
Family Anacardiaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards In sensitive individuals, ingestion of the fruit or skin contact with the juice may cause a rash like that of poison ivy[303 ]. (Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested)
Habitats A mid-canopy tree in humid tropical forests, usually growing in the more open, secondary formations, at elevations usually below 500 metres, but occasionally ascending to 1,700 metres[307 , 653 ].
Range E. Asia - Indian subcontinent, Myanmar.
Edibility Rating    (5 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Mangifera indica Mango, Bowen Mango

Mangifera indica Mango, Bowen Mango


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Mangifera indica, otherwise known as Mango, is a popular fruit tree and the national tree of Bangladesh. It is large and evergreen growing up to 45 m in height and 120 cm in bole diameter. The canopy is umbrella-shaped and spreading. It has a taproot system that can be up to 5 m deep. It is commonly grown in East Asia. Mango fruit is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines. One of the most popular fruits worldwide, it can be eaten raw, processed into juice, jams, candies, etc., or dried and ground into powder. The seeds are sources of starch and edible fat. Young leaves are cooked as a vegetable. Mango has medicinal uses as well. Generally, it is anti-diuretic, antidiarrheal, and antiemetic. Plant parts are used in the treatment of various conditions such as high blood pressure, angina, asthma, coughs, diabetes, dental problems, skin problems, colds, diarrhea, bleeding piles, dysentery, scorpion stings, hemorrhage, stomach pain, etc. The bark and leaves yield yellowish-brown dye used for silk. The flowers are used to repel mosquitos. The wood is used for construction, furniture, carpentry, flooring, box and crates, etc. It is moderately heavy, moderately hard, not durable under exposed conditions, and susceptible to fungi, borers, and termites.

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Mangifera indica is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10 and is frost tender. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Bats, Flies, Ants. The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Mangifera amba Forsk. Mangifera domestica Gaertn. Mangifera gladiata Boj. Mangifera racemosa Boj. Ma

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Fruit  Leaves  Seed
Edible Uses: Condiment  Drink  Tea

Fruit - raw or cooked. One of the most popular fruits in the world, it is commonly eaten raw, is juiced and can also be prepared in a variety of ways such as in chutneys, jams, pickles etc[200 , 301 ]. The dried, unripe fruit is ground into a powder and used as a flavouring in Indian cuisine[301 ]. They are an ingredient of the spice mixture chat masala[301 ]. A variable fruit, ranging in colour from green through orange and yellow to red, it can be anything from 50g to 1.5kg in weight[296 ]. The fruit is usually 8 - 12cm long, but can be up to 30cm[303 ]. The fruit contains about 15% sugars, 0.5% protein and significant amounts of vitamins A, B and C[200 ]. The seeds are used in the preparation of dodol, or pudding[301 ]. A starch and an edible fat can be obtained from them[301 ]. The kernels are important as a famine food in India, but the astringency has to be removed by boiling, roasting and soaking them for a long time[303 ]. Flowers[301 ]. Young leaves[301 ]. Cooked as a vegetable[303 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

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Anthelmintic  Antiasthmatic  Antidiarrhoeal  Antihaemorrhoidal  Antirheumatic  Antiscorbutic  Antitussive  Aphrodisiac  
Astringent  Diuretic  Dysentery  Hypotensive  Mouthwash  Odontalgic  Skin  
Stimulant  Stings  Styptic  Vitamin C

The leaves are astringent and odontalgic[348 ]. An infusion is drunk to reduce blood pressure and as a treatment for conditions such as angina, asthma, coughs and diabetes[272 , 307 , 348 ]. Externally, the leaves are used in a convalescent bath[348 ]. A mouthwash made from the leaves is effective in hardening the gums and helping to treat dental problems[272 , 307 , 348 ]. The leaves are used to treat skin irritations[272 , 307 ]. The charred and pulverized leaves are used to make a plaster for removing warts and also act as a styptic[303 ]. The seed is astringent, antidiarrhoeal; anthelmintic when roasted[348 ]. It is used to treat stubborn colds and coughs, obstinate diarrhoea and bleeding piles[303 ]. The pulverised seed is made into a sweetened tea and drunk, or taken as powders, for treating dysentery[348 ]. The seeds are ground up and used to treat scorpion stings[307 ]. The bark is astringent, homeostatic and antirheumatic[303 ]. Used in the treatment of haemorrhage, diarrhoea and throat problems[307 , 348 ]. When incised, the bark yields an oleoresin which is stimulant, sudorific and antisyphilitic[348 ]. The stem is astringent. It is used to treat diarrhoea and to remedy stomach-ache[348 ]. The roots are diuretic[272 ]. The flowers are aphrodisiac[307 ]. The fruit is antiscorbutic and antidysenteric[348 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Charcoal  Containers  Dye  Fuel  Furniture  Repellent  Teeth  Wood

Backyard tree. Large shade tree. Street tree. Large flowering tree, Public open space. Specimen. Other Uses The bark and the leaves are the source of a yellowish-brown dye used for silk[303 , 307 ]. The flowers are used to repel mosquitoes[307 ]. The slender branches are used as toothbrushes to treat toothache[272 ]. Heartwood is pale yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, darkening on exposure, not clearly demarcated from the pale yellowish-brown sapwood. Grain somewhat wavy, texture moderately coarse; freshly cut wood is scentless. The wood is used for many purposes, including indoor construction, meat-chopping blocks, furniture, carpentry, flooring, boxes, crates and boat building (canoes and dugouts)[303 ]. The wood is a source of 'machang' timber[895 ]. We do not have a specific description for the wood of this speices, but a general description of machang timber is as follows:- The heartwood is light brown or light grey brown, occasionally with chocolate or black streaky coreword; it is not clearly differentiated from the wide band of sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse to coarse and even; the grain interlocked and wavy. The wood is moderately heavy to heavy; moderately hard; not durable under exposed conditions, being susceptible to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. The wood seasons somewhat rapidly with only a slight risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is moderately stable in service. It can be worked with ordinary tools, there is a slight difficulty resawing when green, but is easy when dry; planing is easy but the surface produced is moderately smooth with grain pick-up on the radial side; nailing and screwing is excellent; gluing is correct. The wood is suitable for light construction, turnery, flooring, interior panelling, boxes, crates, pallets and plywood manufacture[895 ]. Corewood can be used for decorative veneer production[848 , 895 ]. With a calorific value of 4200 kcal/kg, the wood makes excellent charcoal and firewood[303 ].

Special Uses

Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

The optimal climate for growing mango ranges from the monsoon tropics to the frost-free subtropics, with a marked dry, or cool, season of at least three months to promote flowering[200 , 303 ]. It succeeds at any elevation up to about 1,200 metres, but for commercial purposes 600 metres is the maximum elevation[303 , 418 ]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 - 30°c, but can tolerate 8 - 48°c[418 ]. When dormant, the plant can survive short-lived temperatures down to about -1°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at 0°c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 600 - 1,500mm, but tolerates 300 - 2,600mm[418 ]. The dry season of equatorial regions is too unreliable for commercial cultivation[200 ]. Whilst trees generally grow best in moderately dry climates, some cultivars can thrive and produce even under rainforest conditions[298 ]. Prefers a sunny position[307 ]. Plants are not too fussy over soil, not needing very fertile conditions[200 ]. However, they crop better in a rich, well-drained soil[307 ], whilst very poor soil, or shallow land, is unsuitable[200 ]. A pH in the range 6 - 7 is ideal[200 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7.5, tolerating 4.3 - 8.5[418 ]. Grows best in areas sheltered from strong, drying winds[418 ]. Established plants are drought tolerant, and can also withstand occasional inundation of the soil[418 ]. Trees produce a taproot up to 5 metres deep[200 ]. Plants take 5 - 8 years from seed before they begin to fruit[296 ]. Grafted plants commence bearing in 3 - 5 years[335 ]. Individual trees often flower irregularly and may only produce one good crop every 3 - 4 year; some trees do not flower for periods of 10 - 20 years, sometimes even longer[303 , 418 ]. Yields increase up to the 20th year, decline after the 40th year and the tree may live for 100 years or more[418 ]. Flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season[303 ]. Most varieties are self-fertile, but produce larger crops when cross-pollinated[335 ]. Yields of about 500 fruits per tree are average in 'on' years[200 ]. A plantation of full-grown trees may produce 10 - 30 tonnes per hectare of fruit each year. Average yields are, however, often quite low with 6 tonnes being achieved in the Philippines, 3.5 tonnes in Peninsular Malaysia and 2.3 tonnes in Thailand[418 ]. A very variable plant, there are many named varieties[200 , 296 ]. Some forms of the mango produce polyembryonic seeds (more than one seedling is produced from each seed) - these forms produce a tree genetically identical to the parent[296 ]. Flowering Time: Late Spring/Early Summer Mid Summer. Blooming Color: Red Pale Yellow White/Near White. Spacing: 30-40 ft. (9-12 m).

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Plant Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as ripe[200 ]. Wash the seed, dry in shade and sow about 5cm deep with the convex side up[200 ]. Germination takes about 18 days if the seed is peeled first, or 30 days if it is not[200 ]. Give the seedlings some shade as they grow[303 ]. Plants that are raised in nursery beds can be transplanted without much difficulty before the taproot has developed to any great extent[303 ]. However, seedlings raised in baskets or containers are preferable[303 ]. Grafting onto a polyembryonic stock[200 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Mango, Bowen Mango, Aam, Am, Aanp, Am, Amb, Amba, Ampalam, Ampelam, Amra chuta, Amram, Amri, Avay, Bumang, Cambe, Cutam, Embe, Emwembe, Epiyembe, Has timor, Kedi, Maembe, Magko, Mamedi chettu, Mamidi, Mamong, Mamuan, Mamuang, Manco, Manga, Mangga, Mangko, Mango-sane, Mangobaum, Mangoro, Mangueira, Manguiera, Mangwara, Mankai, Maqo, Marampalam, Mau, Mavi, Mavu, Mba chi, Mempelam, Mongoro, Muapayahu, Muyembe, Mwangxa, Mwembe, Paho, Pelem, Svaay, Te mangko, Thai hai, Thaiju, Tharbi, Tharyetthi, Theihai, Xoai com, Xoai, Yembe, aabo, aamba, aambaro, aambo, aanp, am, ama, amaramu, amavina, amb, amba, ambakoiti, ambanoo, ambe, ambo, amkoili, ampelan, amra, amcur, an, anbah, anbaj, common mango, indian mango, keri, kyungwa, maangottai, maembre, mamaram, mamidi-jeedi, manga, manga-espada, mangifera indica, mangifera indica bark, mango, mango dusa, mangobaum, mangopalme, mangoro, mangottai paruppu, mango|amba, mangue, mangueira, manguier, mankro, mankru, mavu, muembe, munyembe, mwembe, mángu, nyebe, shing-tog, taksai, yam, amra, amra (seed), amra (stem bark), amrabijamajja,

TROPICAL ASIA: India, Assam, Myanmar,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Data Deficient

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Mangifera kemangaKemangTree30.0 10-12 MLMHNM400
Mangifera rubropetalaRed petaled mangoTree16.0 10-12 MLMHNM401

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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