We have recently published ‘Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions’: i.e. tropical and sub-tropical regions. We rely on regular donations to keep our free database going and help fund development of this and another book we are planning on food forest plants for Mediterranean climates. Please give what you can to keep PFAF properly funded. More >>>

Follow Us:


Cynara scolymus - L.

Common Name Globe Artichoke
Family Asteraceae or Compositae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards Can cause allergic reactions (dermatitis) due to lactones. [301]. Use with caution in cases of biliary obstruction. May hinder breast feeding (lactation) [301].
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range Not known in the wild, it probably arose from a form of C. cardunculus.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (5 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Cynara scolymus Globe Artichoke

Cynara scolymus Globe Artichoke


Translate this page:


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Cynara scolymus is a PERENNIAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from August to September, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies).
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


This name is a synonym of Cynara cardunculus subsp. flavescens Wiklund.

Plant Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Leaves  Stem
Edible Uses: Curdling agent

Flower buds - raw or cooked[2, 7, 15, 16, 27, 37, 183]. Used before the flowers open[171]. The flavour is mild and pleasant[K]. Gobe artichokes are considered to be a gourmet food but they are very fiddly to eat. The buds are harvested just before the flowers open, they are then usually boiled before being eaten. Only the base of each bract is eaten, plus the 'heart' or base that the petals grow from [K]. Small, or baby artichokes, that are produced on lateral stems can be pickled or used in soups and stews[183]. Plants yield about 5 to 6 main heads per year from their second year onwards[200]. Flowering stems - peeled and eaten raw or cooked. A sweet nutty flavour[183]. Young leaf stems - a celery substitute[200]. They are normally blanched to remove the bitterness and then boiled or eaten raw[183]. We find them too bitter to be enjoyable[K]. Leaves - cooked. A bitter flavour[15, 61]. The dried flowers are a rennet substitute, used for curdling plant milks[4, 183].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anticholesterolemic  Antirheumatic  Appetizer  Cholagogue  Digestive  Diuretic  Hypoglycaemic  Lithontripic

The globe artichoke has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels[238, 254]. The leaves are anticholesterolemic, antirheumatic, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic and lithontripic[7, 21, 165]. They are used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset diabetes[238, 254]. The leaves are best harvested just before the plant flowers, and can be used fresh or dried[238]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Cynara scolymus (Cynara cardunculus subsp. flavescens)for liver and gallbladder complaints, loss of appetite (see [302] for critics of commission E).

References   More on Medicinal Uses

The Bookshop: Edible Plant Books

Our Latest books on Perennial Plants For Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens in paperback or digital formats.

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Tropical Plants

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Temperate Plants

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital media.
More Books

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital formats. Browse the shop for more information.

Shop Now

Other Uses


A dark grey dye is obtained from the leaves[7].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Prefers a light warm soil and an open position in full sun[15, 16, 33, 37]. Requires plenty of moisture in the growing season and a good rich soil[200]. Prefers a sheltered position[200] but plants are reasonably wind resistant[K]. Plants are tolerant of saline conditions[4]. Plants succeed in cool climates though they may need protection in cold winters[200], they are unlikely to thrive in the north of Britain. Wet winters are far more likely to cause problems than cold ones[4, K]. The globe artichoke is often cultivated in the garden and sometimes commercially for its edible flower buds, there are some named varieties[183, 200]. It is best to renew the plants by division of the suckers every 3 years but they do live for a number of years[200]. The plant has recently been reclassified (1999) as not having specific status but being part of C. cardunculus. However, since it is distinct enough from the gardener's viewpoint (having a much larger seedhead) we have decided to leave it with its own entry for the time being[K]. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233]. The flowering plant is a magnet for bees[108]. In garden design, as well as the above-ground architecture of a plant, root structure considerations help in choosing plants that work together for their optimal soil requirements including nutrients and water. The root pattern is fleshy. Thick or swollen - fibrous or tap root [2-1].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

Shop Now

Plant Propagation

Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse. Germination is usually quick and good, prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions during the summer. It would be prudent to give the plants some winter protection in their first year. The seed can also be sown in situ in April. Sow the seed 2cm deep, putting 2 or 3 seeds at each point that you want a plant[1]. Protect the seed from mice[1]. Division of suckers. This is best done in November and the suckers overwintered in a cold frame then planted out in April. Division can also be carried out in March/April with the divisions being planted out straight into their permanent positions, though the plants will be smaller in their first year.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Globe Artichoke

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Cynara cardunculusCardoonPerennial2.0 5-9  LMHNDM351
Cynara humilisWild thistlePerennial0.3 6-10 FLMHNDM210

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


Expert comment



Botanical References


Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Peter Crossley   Wed Jun 22 15:42:24 2005

Congratulations on a most excellent entry. This is the first time I have come across your database but it is of a high quality.

jonthan lock   Wed Nov 5 2008

i had my front garden done by professionals, i want to keep it nice but i do not know too much about the plants. i have three cynaras the head are flling of and the leaves are very limp. should i leave them or do i have to cut them back?

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Cynara scolymus  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567.