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Terminalia arjuna - (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.

Common Name Arjuna, Terminalia
Family Combretaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Wet, marshy areas and on riverbanks[254 ]. Banks of streams and rivers in central India[146 , 303 ].
Range E. Asia - India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (4 of 5)
Care
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Terminalia arjuna Arjuna, Terminalia


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Terminalia arjuna Arjuna, Terminalia
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Summary

Arjuna, Terminalia arjuna, is an evergreen, deciduous tree growing up to 25 m tall and 2.5 m in trunk diameter. It is often buttressed with a wide canopy and its bark is smooth and gray. The leaves are oval, broad, taper towards the tip, green, and glossy. The fragrant flowers are greenish-white occurring near the ends of branches. Fruits are large, round, and woody, with five thin flat wings along the side. An important medicinal plant, plant parts are used as treatment for heart conditions and earaches. The seeds are edible. It is sometimes planted as shade tree in plantations. The bark and fruits contain tannins, which is of commercial value. The wood, very hard and not easy to work, is commonly used in general construction and for making agricultural implements, mine props, carts, boats, and many others.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Terminalia arjuna is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Pentaptera angustifolia Roxb. Pentaptera arjuna Roxb. Pentaptera glabra Roxb. Terminalia berryi Wigh

Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Seed
Edible Uses:

Seed[301 ]. A decoction of the bark with milk is used as a beverage[301 ].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


The bark of the tree contains a number of medically active ingredients, including tannins, flavonoids, sterols and triterpenoid saponins[254 ]. The bark is a cardiac tonic, lowers blood pressure and reduces blood cholesterol levels[254 ]. Arjuna is a herb where modern research has fully supported its traditional use for treating heart disease[254 ]. The bark is taken internally to treat a range of heart conditions and seems to work best when blood supply to the heart is poor, as in angina and ischaemic heart disease[254 ]. It is also of value in helping to maintain a steady heart beat[254 ]. The gum is used medicinally[303 ]. The juice of the bark is used as a tonic[272 ]. The juice from the leaves is used traditionally to treat earache[254 ].

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Other Uses

Agroforestry Uses: The tree is planted to provide shade, especially in coffee plantations[418 ]. Other Uses The bark contains 20 - 24% tannin[272 , 317 ]. It is used commercially in India[317 ]. When carefully removed from the tree, without damaging the cambium layer, a new layer of bark will grow[303 ]. The fruits also contain tannin[303 ]. A transparent gum is obtained from the tree[303 ]. The heartwood is brown, variegated with darker coloured streaks; the sapwood is reddish-white[146 ]. The wood is very hard[46 , 146 ]. It is apt to split in seasoning and is not very easy to work[146 ]. It is used for a number of purposes including the construction of carts and boats, for general construction, agricultural implements and mine props[46 , 146 , 272 , 303 ].

Special Uses

Cultivation details

A tree of dry to moist areas in the tropics. It grows best in areas where annual daytime annual temperatures are within the range 20 - 33°c, though it can tolerate 5 - 47°c. It can be killed by temperatures of -1°c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall of 1,000 - 1,500mm, but tolerates 750 - 1,800mm[418 ]. Succeeds in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil and a position in full sun[200 ]. It can tolerate short periods of the soil being inundated[418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6, but tolerates 5 - 7[418 ]. Young trees can reach a height of 13 metres after 16 years[418 ].

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Propagation

Seed - The seed can store at room temperature for up to three years[303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Arjan, Arjhan, Arjun sadura, Arjun, Arjuno, Dharka, Holematti, Kumbuk, Maddi, Orjun, Sad, Sadad, Sadado, Sadaru, Sahajo, Sanmadat, Thella maddi, Vellamarda, Vellamatta, Yerramaddi, arccu?am, arjon, arjun, arjun tree|kumbuk, arjuna, arjuna (stem bark), bilimatti, echte myrobalane, intira? par, kahua, kakubha, kakubha;partha, kellemasuthu, kudare kivimase, kumbuk, maddi, marudam, marutham pa??ai (stem bark), mathichakke, matti, mattimora, neer maruthu, neermatti, nirmasuthu, partha, sadad, sadada, sajada, svetavaha, terminalia arjuna stem bark, terminalia arjuna stem bark for use in thmp, torematti, vellaamaruthi, vellamaruthi, ve??ai marutamaram, white murdh, svetavaha.

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Sri Lanka; India; Pakistan; Bangladesh, Africa, Asia, Australia, Burma, East Africa, Fiji, Hawaii, Mozambique, Myanmar, Northeastern India, Pacific, Pakistan, SE Asia, Singapore, USA,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
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Terminalia chebulaBlack Myrobalan, Chebulic Myroblan,Tree25.0 10-12 SLMHNM354
Terminalia ferdinandianaBilly Goat PlumTree10.0 9-12 MLMNM420
Terminalia ivorensisBlack AfaraTree30.0 10-12 FLMHNM024
Terminalia kaernbachiiOkari NutTree20.0 10-12 FLMHNM502
Terminalia sambesiaca Tree32.0 10-12 FLMHNDM043
Terminalia superbaShinglewoodTree40.0 10-12 FLMHNM024

 

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(Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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