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Salix purpurea - L.

Common Name Purple Osier. purpleosier willow
Family Salicaceae
USDA hardiness Coming soon
Known Hazards Gastrointestinal bleeding & kidney damage possible. Avoid concurrent administration with other aspirin-like drugs. Avoid during pregnancy. Drug interactions associated with salicylates applicable [301].
Habitats Wet places in lowland areas[13, 17], preferring neutral or alkaline soils[186].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Belgium south and east to N. Africa, temperate Asia to Japan.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Full sun
Salix purpurea Purple Osier. purpleosier willow


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cleaned-Illustration_Salix_purpurea.jpg
Salix purpurea Purple Osier. purpleosier willow

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Salix purpurea is a deciduous Tree growing to 5 m (16ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen in May. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). and is pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

S. helix. non L.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Inner bark  Leaves
Edible Uses:

Inner bark - raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails[172]. Young shoots - raw or cooked. They are not very palatable[172].

Medicinal Uses

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Anodyne  Antiinflammatory  Antiperiodic  Antiseptic  Astringent  Diaphoretic  Diuretic  Febrifuge  
Hypnotic  Sedative  Tonic

The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative and tonic[4, 9, 21]. It is a very rich source of salicin, which is used in making aspirin[199]. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache[238]. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use[238]. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic[238], cancerous sores and chronic dysentery[218]. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried[238]. The twigs are used in the treatment of cancer, dysentery and ulcers[218]. The bark of the stem and roots is anodyne and styptic[218]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism[218]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Salix / Willow for diseases accompanied by fever, rheumatic ailments, headaches (see [302] for critics of commission E).

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Other Uses

Basketry  Hedge  Hedge  Repellent  Soil reclamation  Soil stabilization  Tannin

The stems are very tough and flexible and are used in basket making[11, 13, 23, 115]. The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights. The bark is much disliked by rabbits, so a closely woven fence of this plant can be used as a protective barrier[115]. The bark contains about 10% tannin[223]. Plants can be grown as a hedge[29], the var. 'Gracilis' is suitable for a small hedge on damp sites[182, 200]. It can be kept dense by annual clipping[11]. The plant has an extensive root system and is used in soil reclamation and stabilization projects along estuaries[199].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Carbon Farming  Food Forest  Hedge  Hedge

Cultivation details

Agroforestry Services: Windbreak  Fodder: Bank  Industrial Crop: Biomass  Management: Coppice  Other Systems: SRC  Regional Crop

Succeeds in most soils, including wet, ill-drained or intermittently flooded soils[1, 11], but prefers a damp, heavy soil in a sunny position[200]. Plants prefer an alkaline or neutral soil, rarely doing well in acid conditions[186]. Said to prefer a sandy soil[23, 199], plants are tolerant of dryish soils[11]. Plants are tolerant of salt water[199]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is cultivated for its branches which are used in basket making[11], there are some named varieties[131]. Plants are coppiced annually for this purpose[186] A very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly species[30] and a good bee plant, providing an early source of nectar and pollen[11]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Plants should be put into their permanent positions as soon as possible[11]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Carbon Farming

  • Agroforestry Services: Windbreak  Linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to enhance crop production, protect people and livestock and benefit soil and water conservation.
  • Fodder: Bank  Fodder banks are plantings of high-quality fodder species. Their goal is to maintain healthy productive animals. They can be utilized all year, but are designed to bridge the forage scarcity of annual dry seasons. Fodder bank plants are usually trees or shrubs, and often legumes. The relatively deep roots of these woody perennials allow them to reach soil nutrients and moisture not available to grasses and herbaceous plants.
  • Industrial Crop: Biomass  Three broad categories: bamboos, resprouting woody plants, and giant grasses. uses include: protein, materials (paper, building materials, fibers, biochar etc.), chemicals (biobased chemicals), energy - biofuels
  • Management: Coppice  Cut to the ground repeatedly - resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive management systems maintaining the soil organic carbon.
  • Other Systems: SRC  Short-rotation coppice.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.

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Propagation

Seed - must be surface sown as soon as it is ripe in late spring. It has a very short viability, perhaps as little as a few days. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, November to February in a sheltered outdoor bed or planted straight into their permanent position and given a good weed-suppressing mulch. Very easy. Plant into their permanent positions in the autumn. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June to August in a frame. Very easy.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Salix 'Forbiana' Shrub0.0 - FLMHNMWe12 
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123

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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Subject : Salix purpurea  
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