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Punica granatum - L.

Common Name Pomegranate, Dwarf Pomegranate
Family Punicaceae
USDA hardiness 8-10
Known Hazards Take recommended doses. Overdose symptoms include: gastric irritation, vomiting, dizziness, chills, vision disorders, collapse and death [301].
Habitats Dry limestone soils to 2700 metres in the Himalayas[51].
Range S.E. Europe to E. Asia - Himalayas.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Half Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Punica granatum Pomegranate,  Dwarf Pomegranate


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Punica granatum Pomegranate,  Dwarf Pomegranate
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Llez

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Orange, Red. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early spring, Late summer, Late spring, Mid summer, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Punica granatum is a deciduous Tree growing to 5 m (16ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in flower from June to September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs).
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Synonyms

Punica florida, Punica grandiflora, Punica nana. Punica spinosa.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Hedge; South Wall. By.

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit;  Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Fruit - raw[1, 2, 3, 4]. Juicy and refreshing with a sub-acid flavour[183], they are considered delicious by many people though others do not like the large number of seeds with relatively little fruit pulp[K]. The fruit juice can be used in soups, sauces, jellies, ice cream, cakes etc[183]. The fruit contains about 1.5% protein, 1.6% fat, 16.8% carbohydrate, 0.6% ash[149, 179]. Annual yields from wild trees in the Himalayas averaged 32kg per tree[194]. The fruit is about 12cm in diameter[200]. The fresh seed is soft and can be eaten raw[227]. When dried it is used as a seasoning in dal, fried samosa, stuffings and chutneys[183]. The boiled leaves are said to be eaten[183].

Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Fruit (Dry weight)
  • 362 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 5g; Fat: 2.2g; Carbohydrate: 90.5g; Fibre: 12g; Ash: 2.6g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 40mg; Phosphorus: 180mg; Iron: 3mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 4.35mg; Potassium: 1250mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 90mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.27mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.25mg; Niacin: 3.2mg; B6: 0mg; C: 43mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes: The figures given here are the median of a wide range quoted in the report.

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibacterial;  Antidiarrhoeal;  Antiviral;  Astringent;  Cardiac;  Demulcent;  Emmenagogue;  Refrigerant;  
Stomachic;  Vermifuge.

The pomegranate has a long history of herbal use dating back more than 3,000 years[238]. All parts of the plant contain unusual alkaloids, known as 'pelletierines', which paralyse tapeworms so that they are easily expelled from the body by using a laxative[238]. The plant is also rich in tannin, which makes it an effective astringent. It is used externally in the treatment of vaginal discharges, mouth sores and throat infections[238]. The whole plant, but in particular the bark, is antibacterial, antiviral and astringent[21, 46, 57, 89, 176, 194]. This remedy should be used with caution, overdoses can be toxic[21, 218]. The flowers are used in the treatment of dysentery, stomach ache and cough[218]. Along with the leaves and seeds, they have been used to remove worms[4]. The seeds are demulcent and stomachic[4, 240]. The fruit is a mild astringent and refrigerant in some fevers and especially in biliousness[4]. It is also cardiac and stomachic[240]. The dried rind of the fruit is used in the treatment of amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea etc[4, 238]. It is a specific remedy for tapeworm infestation[254]. The stem bark is emmenagogue[218]. Both the stem and the root barks are used to expel tapeworms[4]. Use this with caution, the root bark can cause serious poisoning[7].The bark is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. The dried pericarp is decocted with other herbs and used in the treatment of colic, dysentery, leucorrhoea etc[218].

Other Uses

Dye;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Ink;  Tannin;  Wood.

A red dye is obtained from the flowers and also from the rind of unripened fruits[89, 100, 158, 168]. The dye can be red or black and it is also used as an ink[149]. It is coppery-brown in colour[168]. No mordant is required[168]. A fast yellow dye is obtained from the dried rind[194]. The dried peel of the fruit contains about 26% tannin[46, 223]. The bark can also be used as a source of tannin[146]. The root bark contains about 22% tannin, a jet-black ink can be made from it[194]. Plants are grown as hedges in Mediterranean climates[200]. Wood - very hard, compact, close grained, durable, yellow. Used for making agricultural implements. A possible substitute for box, Buxus spp[146, 149, 158, 194].

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Hedge, Massing, Superior hedge. An easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained fertile soil[1, 182, 260] and succeeds in a hot dry position[166]. Requires a sheltered sunny position[219]. Not very hardy in Britain, the pomegranate tolerates temperatures down to about -11°c[3], but it is best grown on a south facing wall even in the south of the country because it requires higher summer temperatures than are normally experienced in this country in order to ripen its fruit and its wood[11, 166]. The wood is also liable to be cut back by winter frosts when it is grown away from the protection of a wall[11]. Trees do not grow so well in the damper western part of Britain[182]. Most plants of this species grown in Britain are of the dwarf cultivar 'Nana'. This is hardier than the type but its fruit is not such good quality[11]. This sub-species fruited on an east-facing wall at Kew in the hot summer of 1989[K]. The pomegranate is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[183]. In Britain fruits are only produced after very hot summers. Plants often sucker freely[7]. Flowers are produced on the tips of the current years growth[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.

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Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse, preferably at a temperature of 22°c[200, 238]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first 2 growing seasons. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 4 - 5cm with a heel, June/July in a frame[78, 113]. Good percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood, 20 - 25cm long, November in a warm greenhouse[113]. Layering. Division of suckers in the dormant season[200]. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we prefer to pot them up first and plant them out when they are growing away well in late spring or early summer.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Anar, Chimanga cha chizungu, Dadam, Dadima, Dahua, Dalim, Dalima, Dalimba, Danimma, Delima, Dulim, Dulima, Gangsalan, Granada, Granado, Granatapgelbaum, Grenade, Luu, Madulai, Matalam, Melograna, Mkomamanga, Nar, Nkoma mawanga, Nkomawawanga, Roma, Romazeira, Romeira, Shi liu pi, Shi liu, Soekryunamu, Tab sim, Thapthim, Totim, Tuptim, Turchi, Zakuro, anaar, anar, anar (barg), anar danu, anar patta, anar-ke-per, anara, anardana, barg-e-anar, bijapura, carthaginian apple, cortex granati, dadam, dadam chal, dadam phala, dadama, dadima, dadima-phalam, dadimacchada, dadimam, dadimamu, dadimasara, dadimba, dadimbakaya, dadimma, daiimba, dalilmbe kayi, dalim, dalim patra, dalima, dalimb, dalimba, dalimbay, dalimbe haonu, dalimbe-kayi, dalimbo patro, dalimbuhannu, dalimgach, dalimma, dalimo, daluma, danimma, danposh, dantabija, dantabija, dan?abija, darakte-naiar, daran, darim, darimba, darinko bokra, dariun, daru, ddima, delima, delum, delun, dhale, dhalim, dhalima, dila dae lok, dlima, da?ima (fresh fruit), da?ima (fruit rind), da?ima (leaf), da?ima (seed), da?imacchada, ende limau, fulladanimma, gangsalan, glima glineu mekah, granada, granade, granado, granatapfel, granatapfelbaum, granatapfelstrauch, granatbaum, granate bark, granati cortex, granati pericarpium, granati semen, granatum, granatäpple, grenadier, grenadillo, gul armini, gulnar, habh-ur-rumman, humma, jaman, jeliman kalumal, kanthakasi, karakamu, karakmu, kulekhara, kupchaphala, lalimse, lelo kase, lohitapuspa, lohitapu?pa, lohitapu?pa, lohi?apu?pa, maadalai, maadalai. madalam, madala, madalai, madalam, madalangkai, madhubija, madulam, madulam pazham, madulungam, mamtalam, mangrano, matalam, mathalam, mathalanarkom, mbona wesilungu, melograno, mkoma manga, mkomamanga, nar, ngukumaanga, pelkî henar, pericarpium granati, pomegranate, pomegranate fruit, pomegranate leaf, pomegranate rind, pomegranate tree, pomegranate tree|delum, pomenagrate, posnar, pumadalai, pumatalam, qsur roman, qsur rommam, quishr-al-romman, quishr-romman, raktabija, raktabijam, ranato, roman, roman amruj, romanzeira, romanzeiro, romeira, romeira-da-granada, rommam, romman, romã, romã-de-flor-dobrada, romãzeira, roumammam-goulnar, roumamman-goulnar, ruman, rumau, rumman, rummani, rumân, se-bru, sekiryuu-karpi, seog-ryu, seogrjunamu, seokryupi, shajratur-rummam, sham-al-rumman, shi liu, shi liu hua, shi liu pi, shi liu ye, shi liu zi, shih liu pi, shiliupi, shukadana, shíliúpí, suphala, svadvamta, talima, talimatalam, thab thim, thap thim, tiyyadanima, waraq-ur-rumman, ximani, zakuro, zakuro-hi.

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Afghanistan; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Georgia, Africa, Angola, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caribbean, Central Africa, Central America, China, East Africa, Ecuador, Fiji, French Guiana, Ghana, Guyana, Himalayas, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Liberia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Niue, Northeastern India, Pacific, Panama, Papua New Guinea, PNG, Peru, Philippines, Reunion, Samoa, SE Asia, Seychelles, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South America, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, West Africa,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Least Concern

Related Plants

 

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Expert comment

Author

L.

Botanical References

1151200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

Readers comment

   Tue Nov 13 2007

Hello, We have purchased two Melograno trees and four bushes. We want to plant them out on our alottment which is situated in South East London. What are their prospects in this situation. Also how tall will they grow? Sincerely, S Ebrahimi.

Lynne Fewkes   Mon May 28 2007

I have just bought this plant and did not realise it was a pomegranite. My plant has beautiful red flowers on. What will happen after they have finished?

Mr. Neves Terriani Laera   Sat Nov 24 2007

Dear friends, I am agricultural engineer, at Rio de Janeiro/Brazil and I want to begin to develop a project related with Pomegranate Cultivation. My intention is to cultivate a variety/cultivar with RED FRUITS, as red as possible. Please, if possible, I want information about these RED CULTIVARS/VARIETIES, and what can I do to find some seeds from these Pomegranate Types. Thank you and regards, Mr. Neves Terriani Laera Rio de Janeiro/Brazil

   Mon Jun 16 2008

A new publications by Michael Aviram Aviram M., Avira m R and Fuhrman B. Antiatherogenicity and antioxidative properties of polyphenolic flavonoids. In: Natural Antioxidants and Anticarcinogenesis in Nutrition Health and Disease. Eds. Kumpulainen J.T. and Salonen J.T. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K. pp. 106-113 (1999). 2. Aviram M. Does paraoxonase play a role in susceptibility to cardiovascular disease? Mol Med Today 5:381-386 (1999). 3. Aviram M., Dornfeld L., Rosenblat M., Volkova N., Kaplan M., Hayek T., Presser D. and Fuhrman B. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr 71 : 1062-1076 (2000). 4. Kaplan M., Hayek T., Raz A., Coleman R., Dornfeld L., Vaya J. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerosis mice reduces macrophages lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis. J Nutr 131:2082-2089 (2001). 5. Aviram M. and Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis 158:195-198 (2001). 6. Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Flavonoids protect LDL from oxidation and attenuate atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 12: 41-48 (2001). 7. Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Antiatherogenicity of nutritional antioxidants. IDrugs 4: 82-92 (2001). 8. Vaya J. and Aviram M. Nutritional antioxidants: Mechanisms of action, analyses of activities and medical application. Curr Med Chem – Imm Endoc Metab Agents 1: 99-117 (2001). 9. Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Polyphenols and flvaonoids protects LDL against atherogenic modifications. In: Handbook of Antioxidants Biochemical, Nutritional and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Edition. Cadenas E & Packer L (Eds.) Marcel Dekker, NY(Pub.). 16:303-336 (2001). 10. Aviram M. Polypyhenols from pomegranate juice, red wine and licorice root protect against lipids peroxidation and attenuate cardiovascular diseases. In: Polyphenols 2000. XXth International Conference on Polyphenols, Eds. Martens S., Treutter D and Forkmann G. Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany pp. 158 - 175 (2002). 11. Aviram M., Dornfeld L., Kaplan M., Coleman R., Gaitini D., Nitecki S., Hofman A., Rosenblat M., Volkova N., Presser D., Attias J., Hayek T. and Fuhrman B. Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Drugs Ex Clin Res 28: 49-62 (2002). 12. Aviram M. Pomegranate juice as a major source for polyphenolic flavonoids and it is most potent antioxidant against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. In: Proceedings of the 11th Biennal Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International (Paris, France, July 16-20, 2002), by Monduzzi Editore S.p.A. – MEDIMOND Inc. pp. 523-528 (2002). 13. Aviram M., Fuhrman B., Rosenblat M., Volkova N., Kaplan M., Hayek T., Presser D., Attias J., Gaitini D., Nitecki S., Hoffman A. and Dorenfeld L. Pomegranate juice polyphenols decreases oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein atherogenic modifications and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Research 36 (Supplement 1): 72-73 (2002). 14. Aviram M. Pomegranate juice as a major source for polyphenolic flavonoids and it is most potent antioxidant against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Research 36 (Supplement 1): 71-72 (2002). 15. Rosenblat M., Draganov D., Watson C.E., Bisgaier C.L., La Du B.N. and Aviram M. Mouse macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity is increased whereas cellular paraoxonase 3 activity is decreased under oxidative stress. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:468-474 (2003). 16. Aviram M., Rosenbalt M., Gaitini D., Nitecki S., Hoffman A., Dornfeld L., Volkova N., Presser D., Attias J., Leiker H. and Hayek T. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 23: 423-433 (2004). 17. Aviram M. Pomegranate, an Asian-mediteranean plant is a most potent protector against cardiovascular diseases. Asia-Pacific Biotech News (APBN). 8: 1293-1297 (2004). 18. Azadzoi K.M., Schulman R.N., Aviram M. and Siroky M.B. Oxidative stress in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction: prophylactic role of antioxidans. J. Urol. 174: 386-393 (2005). 19. Fuhrman B., Volkova N. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice inhibits oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages. J Nutr Biochem 16: 570-576 (2005). 20. Aviram M., Kaplan M., Rosenblat M. and Fuhrman B. Dietary antioxidants against LDL oxidation and atheroslceosis development: protective role for paraoxonase. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (HEP) : Arteriosclerosis; Influence of Diet and Drugs. Ed. A. von Eckardstein 170: 259-296 (2005). 21. Rosenblat M. and Aviram M. Antioxidative properties of pomegranate (2005, in press). 22. Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice protects against cardiovascular diseases (2005, in press). 23. Rosenblat M., Hayek T. and Aviram M. Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption by diabetic patients on serum and on macrophages. Atherosclerosis. (2005). 24. Rozenberg O., Howell A. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it. Atherosclerosis. (2005, in press).

seedapple   Sun Jul 20 2008

Hate to tell you this Mr. Neves Terriani Laera, but there already is a red-fruited cultivar. It grows in my back yard. Incidentally, I never knew the leaves were edible. Can anyone confirm this with firsthand experience?

michael   Sun Sep 6 2009

Pomegranate is a sweet and sour fruit rich in iron and very astingent

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