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Phellodendron amurense - Rupr.

Common Name Amur Cork Tree, Chinese Corktree
Family Rutaceae
USDA hardiness 3-8
Known Hazards High doses can cause nausea & vomiting. Avoid with spleen and stomach disorders. Avoid during pregnancy as high berberine content [301]
Habitats Forests in valleys and on mountains[74].
Range E. Asia - N. China and Manchuria.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Phellodendron amurense Amur Cork Tree, Chinese Corktree


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jean-Pol_GRANDMONT
Phellodendron amurense Amur Cork Tree, Chinese Corktree
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Summary

Bloom Color: Green, White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded, Spreading or horizontal, Vase.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Phellodendron amurense is a deciduous Tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). . The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy; Secondary;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit;  Oil.
Edible Uses: Oil.

Fruit[105, 177]. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter and has a strong scent of turpentine[200].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibacterial;  Bitter;  Cholagogue;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Hypoglycaemic;  Ophthalmic;  Skin;  
Stomachic;  Vasodilator.

Amur cork tree, called Huang Bai in China, is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs, but one that should be used with care[218, 254]. A strongly bitter remedy, the bark acts strongly on the kidneys and is regarded as a detoxicant for hot damp conditions[238]. Recent research has shown that the plant is useful in the treatment of meningitis and conjunctivitis[254]. Huang Bai should only be used under professional supervision and should not be take during pregnancy[254]. The bark is alterative, antibacterial, antirheumatic, aphrodisiac, bitter stomachic, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, ophthalmic, skin, vasodilator and tonic[4, 61, 174, 176, 178, 218, 238, 279]. It is taken internally in the treatment of acute diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice, vaginal infections including Trichomonas, acute urinary tract infections, enteritis, boils, abscesses, night sweats and skin diseases[238, 254]. It is commonly used in conjunction with Scutellaria baicalensis and Coptis chinensis in a preparation called 'injection of three yellow herbs'[238]. It is given intramuscularly for upper respiratory tract infections[238]. The bark of 10 year old trees is harvested in the winter or spring and dried for later use[238, 254]. The fruit is expectorant[218].

Other Uses

Cork;  Dye;  Insecticide;  Oil;  Wood.

A yellow dye is obtained from the inner bark[178]. An oil obtained from the seed has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum[57]. Wood - heavy, hard, strong, close grained. Used for furniture[74]. The bark is a cork substitute[74].

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Pest tolerant, Specimen, Street tree. Prefers a moisture retentive well-drained deep rich loam in full sun[11, 200]. Prefers a neutral to alkaline soil[238]. Succeeds in shallow chalky soils[245]. Grows best in areas with long hot summers[200]. Plants are gross feeders and require a rich soil if they are to perform well[11]. Dormant plants are fully hardy in Britain[188], but the young growth is liable to damage from late spring frosts[11, 188, 200]. The leaves are aromatic[188]. This species is occasionally cultivated for timber in S.E. Europe[50]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features:Not North American native, Naturalizing, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

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Propagation

Seed - best sown in the autumn in a cold frame[200]. Stored seed requires 2 months cold stratification, sow in late winter in a cold frame[78, 113]. Germination is usually good. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in autumn and over winter in a cold frame. Fair to good percentage[78]. Root cuttings - obtain in December and store in leafmold in a warm place for 3 weeks. Cut into 4cm lengths and plant horizontally in pots. Grow on in a warm greenhouse. Good percentage[78].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants

 

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Author

Rupr.

Botanical References

1174200

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