We depend on donations from users of our database of over 8000 edible and useful plants to keep making it available free of charge and to further extend and improve it. In recent months donations are down, and we are spending more than we receive. Please give what you can to keep PFAF properly funded. More >>>

Follow Us:


Gymnanthemum amygdalinum - (Delile) Sch.Bip.

Common Name Bitterleaf
Family Asteraceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Along rivers and lakes, in forest margins, woodland and grassland, at elevations up to 2,000 metres. Often found in disturbed localities such as abandoned farmland and in secondary woodland[299 ].
Range Tropical Africa - widespread, in most countries from Guinea to Mali and south to Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Gymnanthemum amygdalinum Bitterleaf

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum Bitterleaf
CostaPPPR wikimedia.org


Translate this page:


Gymnathemum amygdalinum or commonly known as Bitterleaf is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is much-branched and grows up to 10 m tall with trunk diameter of about 40 cm. It can be found in tropical Africa. Established plants are drought-tolerant. Young leafy shoots are edible, eaten as a potherb or added to soups. Leaf decoctions are used in the treatment of fever, malaria, scabies, diarrhea, cough, dysentery, headache, stomach pains, and hepatitis. It is also a laxative and fertility inducer. Young twigs are chewed as a stomachic tonic and appetite stimulant. Root extracts are used for malaria, gastrointestinal disorders, and sexually transmitted diseases. Bark infusions are used against fever and diarrhea while dried flowers are for stomach disorders. Bitterleaf is sometimes grown as a hedge or to prevent soil erosion. It is a useful control agent against plant diseases. Young twigs are used as toothpicks or chew sticks. The wood is used for timber, fuel, and charcoal.

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Gymnanthemum amygdalinum is an evergreen Shrub growing to 8 m (26ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Bracheilema paniculatum R.Br. Cacalia amygdalina Kuntze Cheliusia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. Dec


Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves  Shoots
Edible Uses: Condiment

Young leafy shoots - cooked[299 , 301 ]. Eaten as a potherb or added to soups[301 ]. The leaves often have an intensely bitter flavour, but forms exist that are nearly free of bitterness[301 ]. The plant should be harvested by trimming off the ends of whole shoots[299 ]. This encourages new growth whereas simply removing leaves can slow down growth[299 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antidiarrhoeal  Bitter  Dysentery  Febrifuge  Infertility  Laxative  Malaria  Mouthwash  
Parasiticide  Stomachic  Tonic

Bitterleaf is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa. Leaf decoctions are used to treat fever, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis and cough, as a laxative and as a fertility inducer[299 ]. They are also used as a medicine for scabies, headache and stomach-ache. Leaves are placed on a wound as a substitute for iodine[299 ]. The bitterness in the leaves is caused by sesquiterpene lactones and steroid glucosides. Some of these compounds have significant antiparasitic activity, especially vernodalin and vernonioside B1. Vernolepin showed platelet anti-aggregating properties. Vernodalin and vernomygdin have cytotoxic activity[299 ]. Young twigs are chewed as a stomachic tonic and appetite stimulant[301 ]. One of the most common medicinal uses of Vernonia amygdalina is as a treatment against intestinal worms including nematodes[299 ]. Not only humans but also chimpanzees ingest the bitter pith of Vernonia amygdalina for the control of intestinal nematode infections[299 ]. Root extracts are used as treatment against malaria and gastrointestinal disorders[299 ]. In Zimbabwe a root infusion is used to treat sexually transmitted diseases[299 ]. Bark infusions are also taken to treat fever and diarrhoea, dried flowers against stomach disorders[299 ]

References   More on Medicinal Uses

Now available: PLANTS FOR YOUR FOOD FOREST: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens.

An important new book from PFAF. It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, including carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield. The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth.

Read More


Other Uses

Charcoal  Fencing  Fuel  Hedge  Parasiticide  Plant breeding  Soil stabilization  Teeth  Wood

Agroforestry Uses: The plant is sometimes grown as a hedge[299 ]. The branches are termite resistant and are used as stakes to line out fields and as a live fence[299 , 418 ]. The tree is sometimes planted to prevent soil erosion[418 ]. Other Uses: Bitterleaf is useful as a control agent against diseases in plants[299 ]. The ash from burnt branches is used to control seed-borne fungi, thus ameliorating seed viability and germination capacity[299 ]. Young twigs are used as toothpicks or chewing sticks[299 ]. They have been shown to contain substances that have a marked activity against bacteria that cause gum diseases[299 ]. They also act to stimulate the appetite[418 ]. The wood is used for timber[418 ]. The wood is used for fuel and to make charcoal[303 , 418 ]. Dry stems and branches provide fuel[299 ].

Special Uses

Food Forest  Hedge

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

A plant of the tropics, where it is found at elevations from 600 - 2,800 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 26°c, but can tolerate 16 - 35°c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 750 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 600 - 2,400mm[418 ]. Requires a position in full sun[299 ]. Succeeds on most soil types, though it grows best in well-drained, humus-rich soils[299 , 418 ]. Plants prefer a moist environment, though they are fairly drought tolerant once established[299 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7, tolerating 5 - 7.5[418 ]. Plants can be coppiced[303 ]. Cultivated forms have been selected that are less bitter than the wild plant[299 ]. Flowering is induced by short days[299 ].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

Shop Now


Seed - takes 2 - 3 weeks to germinate[299 ]. Cuttings of mature wood.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Bitterleaf, alumã, boldo

Native Plant Search

Search over 900 plants ideal for food forests and permaculture gardens. Filter to search native plants to your area. The plants selected are the plants in our book 'Plants For Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens, as well as plants chosen for our forthcoming related books for Tropical/Hot Wet Climates and Mediterranean/Hot Dry Climates. Native Plant Search

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


Print Friendly and PDF

Expert comment


(Delile) Sch.Bip.

Botanical References


Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

Readers comment

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Gymnanthemum amygdalinum  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567.