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Citrus sinensis - (L.)Osbeck.

Common Name Sweet Orange
Family Rutaceae
USDA hardiness 9-11
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Original habitat is obscure, possibly an introgressed hybrid of C. maxima x C. reticulata[200].
Range Original range is obscure, possible Asia in southern China and Vietnam.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Citrus sinensis Sweet Orange


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Histoire_et_culture_des_orangers_A._Risso_et_A._Poiteau._--_Paris_Henri_Plon,_Editeur,_1872.jpg
Citrus sinensis Sweet Orange
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:EugeneZelenko Citrus x meyeri

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Early winter, Late spring, Late winter, Mid spring, Mid winter. Form: Rounded.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Citrus sinensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 9 m (29ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion), insects. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms

C. aurantium sinensis.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers;  Fruit;  Oil.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Oil;  Tea.

Fruit - raw. Sweet and delicious[1, 3, 46, 61]. The juice is often extracted from the fruit and sold as a refreshing and healthy drink or used in jellies, ice cream etc[183]. The rind of the fruit is often used as a flavouring in cakes etc or made into marmalade[1, 46, 183]. Flowers - cooked as a vegetable or made into a tea[183].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Appetizer;  Blood purifier;  Carminative;  Miscellany;  Skin;  Tonic.

Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[238]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[238]. The fruit is appetizer and blood purifier[240]. It is used to allay thirst in people with fevers and also treats catarrh[240]. The fruit juice is useful in the treatment of bilious affections and bilious diarrhoea[240]. The fruit rind is carminative and tonic[240]. The fresh rind is rubbed on the face as a cure for acne[240]. The dried peel is used in the treatment of anorexia, colds, coughs etc[218].

Other Uses

Essential;  Miscellany;  Oil.

A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making[46, 61]. An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines[1, 46, 61].

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Espalier, Standard, Specimen. Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position[1, 200]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Plants are intolerant of water logging[3]. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results[260]. Do not use manure since Citrus species dislike it[260]. When watering pot plants it is important to neither overwater or underwater since the plant will soon complain by turning yellow and dying. Water only when the compost is almost dry, but do not allow it to become completely dry[260]. The sweet orange is widely grown for its edible fruit in warm temperate and tropical zones, there are many named varieties[183]. In Britain it can be grown in a pot placed outdoors in the summer and brought into a greenhouse during the winter[3]. Plants are almost hardy in the mildest areas of Britain[1] but the fruit is insipid if it is developed when the mean temperature is below 18°c[3]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. Plants dislike root disturbance and so should be placed into their permanent positions when young. If growing them in pots, great care must be exercised when potting them on into larger containers[238]. Special Features:Edible, Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation

The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it ripe after thoroughly rinsing it[164, 200]. Sow stored seed in March in a greenhouse[3]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembrionic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least three growing seasons before trying them outdoors. Plant them out in the summer and give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Layering in October.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Citrus aurantiifoliaLime, Key Lime, Mexican Lime, Mexican Thornless Key Lime42
Citrus aurantiumBitter Orange, Sour orange, Bergamot orange33
Citrus ichangensisIchang Papeda22
Citrus limonLemon45
Citrus reticulataMandarin, Tangerine, Unshu orange, Satsuma Orange,Temple Orange, Tangerine33
Citrus x meyeriLemon35
Citrus x paradisiGrapefruit, Pomelo, Pamplemousse41

 

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Expert comment

Author

(L.)Osbeck.

Botanical References

200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Gurpreet Singh   Sun Jan 7 2007

Need advice on possibility of inter-cropping citrus with lemongrass

Joyson Kamei   Wed Sep 17 2008

what is the common name of citrus sinensis?

david n   Wed Sep 17 2008

The common name is Orange, this is the common Orange you'll find in any fruit shop.

dhukate   Sun Sep 28 2008

method of tissue culture lime plant production

caroline   Fri Feb 13 2009

what are the defense mechanisms of this plant?

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