We have recently published ‘Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions’: i.e. tropical and sub-tropical regions. We rely on regular donations to keep our free database going and help fund development of this and another book we are planning on food forest plants for Mediterranean climates. Please give what you can to keep PFAF properly funded. More >>>

Follow Us:


Eruca vesicaria sativa - (Mill.)Thell.

Common Name Rocket
Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Waste ground, fields, olive groves, stony hills, tracksides etc[89].
Range Europe - Mediterranean. A frequent casual in Britain, occasionally becoming established for a while.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Eruca vesicaria sativa Rocket

Eruca vesicaria sativa Rocket
SDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 192.


Translate this page:


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Eruca vesicaria sativa is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


E. sativa. Mill. E. vesicaria. Brassica eruca.

Plant Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Leaves  Oil  Oil
Edible Uses: Condiment  Oil  Oil

Young leaves - raw or cooked[2, 27, 33, 34, 74]. A distinct strongly spicy flavour[183], the taste is best from fast, well-grown plants[200]. A few leaves added to a salad are acceptable though the flavour is too strong for many tastes[K]. Some people really like these leaves though most are not very keen[K]. Older leaves that have become too hot to eat on their own can be pureed and added to soups etc[183]. In the milder areas of Britain it is possible to produce edible leaves all year round from successional sowings, especially if the winter crop is given some protection[K]. Flowers - raw[52}. A similar taste to the leaves, they make a nice garnish on the salad bowl[183]. The seed yields a semi-drying oil[1, 2, 74] which is edible if stored 6 months[61, 114] and is a substitute for rapeseed oil[34]. It contains 32% fat, 27% protein[114]. It is known as 'jamba oil'[183]. A mustard is obtained from the seed[46, 74, 183], the strong flavour comes from an essential oil that is contained within the oil of the seed[114]. The pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed - an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 - 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard[238].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antibacterial  Antiscorbutic  Aphrodisiac  Diuretic  Rubefacient  Stimulant  Stomachic

Rocket was at one time used medicinally, though it is now used only as a salad herb[238]. The leaves are antiscorbutic, diuretic, stimulant and stomachic[4, 46]. The seed is rubefacient and stimulant[4, 46]. The powdered seed possesses antibacterial activity, but no alkaloids have been isolated[240]. The oil from the seed is said to have aphrodisiac properties[264].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

The Bookshop: Edible Plant Books

Our Latest books on Perennial Plants For Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens in paperback or digital formats.

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Tropical Plants

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Temperate Plants

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital media.
More Books

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital formats. Browse the shop for more information.

Shop Now

Other Uses

Oil  Oil

The seed yields a semi-drying oil which is a substitute for rapeseed oil[46]. It can also be used for lighting, burning with very little soot[114].

Special Uses

Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

A very easily grown and fast-maturing plant, it succeeds in most soils and conditions, though it prefers some shade in summer[52]. Once established, plants are quite drought resistant[160]. Rocket is occasionally cultivated for its edible leaves and flowers, it can be ready for harvest within 40 days of sowing the seed[1, 46, 89, 264], there are some named varieties. 'Rocket Improved' is less prone to bolting, though it still grows best in cooler weather[183]. Plants usually self-sow freely if the ground is disturbed in some way, such as by hoeing[K]. This species is normally untroubled by pests or diseases[160].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

Shop Now

Plant Propagation

Seed - sow outdoors in spring in situ. Germination is usually very quick and free. In order to obtain a continuous supply of edible leaves, successional sowings can be made every few weeks until mid August[33]. A late summer/early autumn sowing can provide leaves in winter, though the plants might require some protection in very cold winters[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Native Plant Search

Search over 900 plants ideal for food forests and permaculture gardens. Filter to search native plants to your area. The plants selected are the plants in our book 'Plants For Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens, as well as plants chosen for our forthcoming related books for Tropical/Hot Wet Climates and Mediterranean/Hot Dry Climates. Native Plant Search

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Bunias erucagoCorn Rocket, Crested wartycabbageAnnual/Biennial0.6 6-9  LMHNM30 
Erucaria hispanica Annual/Biennial0.0 -  LMHSNM20 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


Expert comment



Botanical References


Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment


No where mentioned that how it is safe to use as cooking oil. It is expected that composition should also be mentioned. If it is clear to me it would also be useful for all. Please mention specifically about use of its oil as cooking oil. Trilok India

Yogesh Sharma   Sun Feb 18 2007

Hi Experts, If any one has any idea about following topics please lets me know: 1. Effect of UV-B radiation on eruca sativa 2. How to calculate the peroxidase value (except titrated method) Mail ID : [email protected] Thanks & Regards, Yogesh Sharma.

Prem Batra   Thu Mar 1 2007

I would like to know whether Eruca Jativa Oil can be eused to make Bio-Diesel.If so how much Caustic Soda and Methnol would be required to convert 100Litres of this oil iin tto Bio-diesel regards, Prem [email protected]

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Eruca vesicaria sativa  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567.