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Shorea balangeran - (Korth.) Burck

Common Name Red Balau
Family Dipterocarpaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Peat-swamp forest[338 ]. A mid-canopy tree in undisturbed keranga or (peat)-swamp forests near the coast up to elevations of 100 metres[359 , 653 ]. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree[359 ].
Range Southeast Asia - Indonesia.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (4 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Shorea balangeran Red Balau


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Shorea balangeran Red Balau
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Summary

Shorea balangeran, also known as Red Balau, is a critically endangered species commonly found in Southeast Asia that grows up to 32 m in height with a buttressed bole that can be up to 75 cm in diameter. There are no known edible and medicinal uses of this plant. However, it yields a dammar known as ?Tangkawang fat?, a hard resin, which is used for candle making, soap manufacturing, and for illumination. It has many other purposes and commercial applications but due to the availability of synthetic materials nowadays, it has become less significant. The wood is hard to very hard, heavy to very heavy, strong, and durable. It is used for construction, ship building, bridges, etc.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Shorea balangeran is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Hopea balangeran Korth. Parahopea balangeran Heim Parashorea balangeran Merr.

Habitats

Edible Uses

None known

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Adhesive  Basketry  Ink  Lighting  Paint  Resin  Soap making  Varnish  Waterproofing  Wood

Other Uses: A dammar, known as 'Tangkawang fat' is obtained from the tree[46 ]. It is used for candle making, soap manufacture and for illumination[46 ]. Dammar is a hard resin, obtained from various trees of Southeast Asia. Traditionally, it is used for purposes such as caulking boats and baskets, as an adhesive, a medicine, as a fuel for torches and sometimes in foods. Dammar has many commercial applications, though many of these uses are less important nowadays due to the advent of synthetic materials. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes etc, and is used as a glazing agent in foods[891 ]. Harvesting of the resin commences when the bole is around 25cm in diameter (approx 20 years old). Triangular cuts (becoming circular with age) are arranged in vertical rows around the trunk. The cuts are several centimetres wide at first, but become enlarged at every tapping and eventually become holes of 15 - 20cm in depth and width. The average number of holes for a tree about 30 metres tall and 60 - 80cm in diameter is 9 - 11 in each of 4 - 5 vertical rows. For the higher holes, the tapper climbs the tree supported by a rattan belt and using the lower holes as footholds. The exuded resin is allowed to dry on the tree before it is collected. The frequency with which the tree is visited to refreshen the cut varies from once a week to once a month, depending on how far the tree is from the village. Tapping can continue for 30 years[891 ]. The heartwood is grayish to yellowish gray; the moderately thick band of sapwood is light gray. The texture is fine; the grain interlocked. The wood is hard to very hard; heavy to very heavy; strong; durable. It is widely used for permanent construction, shipbuilding, and bridges[359 , 890 ].

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

A plant of lowland areas in the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 100 metres[451 ]. Mostly found on poor sandy soils on alluvial sites or hillsides in the wild[359 ].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Propagation

We have no specific information for this species - the information below is a general guide for the genus. Seed - best sown as soon as possible. It does not require pre-treatment, but it is recommended to soak the seed for 12 hours prior to sowing[325 ]. The seeds are sown in seedbeds, where they are covered with a mixture of sand and soil (1:1) or with a thin layer of sawdust[325 ]. Germination of fresh seeds is usually good and rapid. About two weeks after germination, when the seedlings are 5 - 6cm tall, they are potted up into individual containers about 15 x 23cm with good drainage holes at their base[325 ]. It is normally recommended to use a mixture of forest soil and sand (at a ratio of 3:1) as the potting medium in order to introduce the appropriate mycorrhiza to the roots. The seedlings are placed in 50 - 60% sunlight and watered twice daily[325 ]. Seedlings can be planted out when 30 - 40cm tall - harden the seedlings off in full sunlight for one month prior to planting[325 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Indonesia

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Critically Endangered A1cd

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Shorea javanicaDammar, White merantiTree40.0 10-12 FLMHNM103
Shorea johorensisSeraya majau, Meranti majauTree50.0 10-12 MLMHNM004
Shorea macrophyllaLight Red Meranti, Engkabang, False Ilipe NutTree35.0 10-12 FMHNM324
Shorea obtusaTaengwood Balau, tengTree20.0 10-12 MLMNDM024
Shorea polyspermaDark-red Philippine-mahoganyTree25.0 10-12 FLMHNM004
Shorea quadrinervisLight Red MerantiTree30.0 10-12 MLMHNDM004
Shorea robustaSal TreeTree40.0 10-12 FLMHNM434
Shorea siamensisDark red meranti, Light red meranti, Red lauanTree18.0 10-12 FLMNDM024

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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(Korth.) Burck

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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