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Quercus ithaburensis - (Kotschy.)Hedge.&Yalt.

Common Name Valonia Oak
Family Fagaceae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Open forests in the hills or as solitary trees[45, 89], usually in dry soils[100].
Range S.E. Europe to W. Asia.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Quercus ithaburensis Valonia Oak


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Quercus ithaburensis Valonia Oak
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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Quercus ithaburensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 13 m (42ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind.
Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Q. aegilops macrolepis. Q. graeca. Q. macrolepis. Kotschy.

Habitats

Edible Uses

Seed - raw or cooked[2, 63, 89, 100]. The seed is quite big, about 4cm x 3cm[200] and is very low in tannin[183]. Any bitter seeds can be leached by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. Roasted seed is a coffee substitute. A manna is obtained from the tree[183]. No further details.

Medicinal Uses

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Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[4].

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Other Uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[20]. The acorn cups contain about 45% tannin[171, 223]. A black dye can be obtained from them[89] and it can be used as an ink[100]. Gall-like excretions on the plant are caused by damage from the insect Cynips calicis. These growths contain about 30% tannin[223].

Cultivation details

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[1, 11]. Lime tolerant[188]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[200]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[200]. Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, but trees usually grow well in Britain[200]. The seed takes two years to ripen but is seldom produced in this country[11]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[200]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[11].

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Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[11]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Quercus fruticosa 32
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Quercus ilexHolly Oak, Evergreen Oak52
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Quercus imbricariaShingle Oak, Northern Laurel Oak22
Quercus infectoriaAleppo Oak, Oak22
123

 

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Author

(Kotschy.)Hedge.&Yalt.

Botanical References

1145200

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