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Populus deltoides - W.Bartram. ex Marshall.

Common Name Eastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace Poplar
Family Salicaceae
USDA hardiness 3-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rich moist soils, mainly along riverbanks, bottoms and rich woods[43, 227].
Range N. America - Quebec to Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Populus deltoides Eastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace Poplar


www.mt.nrcs.usda.gov
Populus deltoides Eastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace Poplar
Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetla

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Populus deltoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Inner bark  Leaves  Seed
Edible Uses:

Inner bark[105, 161, 177, 257]. A mucilaginous texture, it is usually harvested in the spring[257]. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Seeds[105, 161, 177]. No more details are given but they are very small and would be exceedingly fiddly to collect and use. Sap - used for food[257]. Buds[105, 161, 177]. No more details are given. The leaves are rich in protein and have a greater amino-acid content than wheat, corn, rice and barley[226]. A concentrate made from them is as nourishing as meat, but can be produced faster and more cheaply[226]. Some people believe that this will become a major food source for humans[226].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anodyne  Anthelmintic  Antiinflammatory  Antiscorbutic  Blood purifier  Febrifuge  Poultice  Tonic


The bark contains salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body[222, 238]. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps[238]. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of whooping cough and tuberculosis[257]. A decoction of the bark has been used to rid the body of intestinal worms[257]. The bark has been eaten as a treatment for colds[257]. A tea made from the inner bark is used in the treatment of scurvy[222]. The inner bark, combined with black haw bark (Crataegus douglasii) and wild plum bark (Prunus spp) has been used as a female tonic[222, 257]. A poultice of the leaves has been used as a treatment for rheumatism, bruises, sores and boils[257].

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Other Uses

Biomass  Dye  Pioneer  Rooting hormone  Shelterbelt  Soil stabilization  Wood

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day[172]. Various dyes can be obtained from the leaf buds in the spring - green, white, yellow, purple and red have been mentioned[257]. Trees are planted for dune fixing in erosion control programmes[149, 227]. They are also good pioneer species, growing quickly to provide a good habitat for other woodland trees and eventually being out-competed by those trees[229]. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[200, 269]. Another report says that it is easily storm-damaged[227]. The wood has been used as a bio-mass for producing methanol, which can be used to power internal combustion engines[226]. Annual yields of 7 tonnes of oven-dry material per year have been achieved[269]. Wood - weak, soft, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, very resistant to abrasion but warps and shrinks badly[11, 149, 171, 227]. It weighs 24lb per cubic foot[235]. The wood takes paint well, is easy to glue and nail[227]. It is used principally for lumber, pulp, crates, veneer etc[11, 149, 171].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Biomass  Management: Coppice  Management: Standard  Minor Global Crop  Other Systems: Irreg. Intercrop  Other Systems: Strip intercrop

Landscape Uses:Erosion control, Aggressive surface roots possible. An easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil[1, 269] but thrives best on moist well-drained, fine sandy loams or silts close to streams[269]. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain[11, 200]. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils[11]. It does not do well in exposed upland sites[11]. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition[200]. Tolerates both hot and cool summers[200]. Fairly wind-tolerant[200]. The tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 60 to 150cm, an annual temperature in the range of 8 to 14°C, and a pH of 4.5 to 8[269]. A fast-growing but short-lived tree[227, 229, 274]. It can make new shoots up to 1.5 metres long each year[274] and is often planted for timber in Europe[50]. It does have drawbacks, though, since it is easily storm-damaged, is easily damaged by fire when young and is much attacked by fungi[227]. Like the quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) the leaves of this species rustle even in light breezes[274]. The trees can be coppiced[149], sprouting freely from the base of the trunk and the roots if they are cut down[227]. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building's foundations by drying out the soil[11]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Special Features: North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Biomass  Three broad categories: bamboos, resprouting woody plants, and giant grasses. uses include: protein, materials (paper, building materials, fibers, biochar etc.), chemicals (biobased chemicals), energy - biofuels
  • Management: Coppice  Cut to the ground repeatedly - resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive management systems maintaining the soil organic carbon.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Minor Global Crop  These crops are already grown or traded around the world, but on a smaller scale than the global perennial staple and industrial crops, The annual value of a minor global crop is under $1 billion US. Examples include shea, carob, Brazil nuts and fibers such as ramie and sisal.
  • Other Systems: Irreg. Intercrop  Irregular intercropping systems are trees scattered throughout cropland.
  • Other Systems: Strip intercrop  Tree crops grown in rows with alternating annual crops.

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Propagation

Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring[113]. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening[200]. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing[11]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 20 - 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy. Suckers in early spring[78].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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Expert comment

Author

W.Bartram. ex Marshall.

Botanical References

114360200

Links / References

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Readers comment

Jennifer Schneider   Tue Jul 21 2009

Where can I buy these? Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall (including P. x canadensis Moench) Eastern or Carolina Cottonwood

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