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Pinus radiata - D.Don.

Common Name Monterey Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 3-11
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Found only in a narrow belt a few kilometres wide near the California coast, in dry bluffs and slopes below 300 metres[71, 82].
Range South-western N. America - California.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Pinus radiata Monterey Pine


http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalvenjah/
Pinus radiata Monterey Pine
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Mbz1

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Brown, Purple, Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Pyramidal.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus radiata is an evergreen Tree growing to 65 m (213ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from February to March, and the seeds ripen from January to February. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy; Hedge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts:
Edible Uses: Condiment

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].

References

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4].

References

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Other Uses

Dye  Hedge  Hedge  Herbicide  Shelterbelt  Wood

Very tolerant of maritime exposure and salt-laden winds, it is also very fast growing. Increases in height of between 1 and 2.5 metres per year have been recorded even in exposed positions, it makes an excellent shelterbelt tree[11, 75]. A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - tough and hard[229]. It is light, soft, brittle, close-grained and not strong according to another report[82]. It is widely grown for lumber in warm temperate zones[200] and has been used for flooring, finishings and fuel[229].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming  Food Forest  Hedge  Hedge

References

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Management: Standard  Regional Timber

Landscape Uses:Screen, Specimen. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. Very resistant to maritime exposure[75], the leaves can be badly burned by cold dry winds but this does not seem to affect growth[11]. Mature trees produce a broad heavy crown and are somewhat likely to be blown down in severe gales[200]. Trees are somewhat tender when young[11]. Any transplanting is best done when the plant is in active growth in the summer. Only small plants should be moved[200]. Extensively cultivated for timber in warm temperate zones, especially in New Zealand, it grows larger in cultivation than it does in the wild[200]. It is a very vigorous tree in S.W. England[11] where growth takes place almost all year round and annual height increases of 2.5 metres in young plants are not uncommon[185]. Outside the milder areas growth is less vigorous, taking place from June to September[185]. A short-lived tree in the wild, where it rarely lives longer than 100 years[81]. It is probably going to be long-lived in cultivation in Britain[185]. It often self-sows in Britain, though the seedlings are usually found in the shade of the tree and do not flourish there[185]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. The cones are 8 - 17cm long[82], they remain closed on the tree for many years, only opening after the heat of a forest fire followed by rain[200]. Plants can produce new shoots from reasonably old wood so the lower branches can be cut back to produce a hedge-like effect[11]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Materials, chemicals and energy include bioplastics, rubber, biomass products gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, butane, propane, biogas. Plants are usually resprouting plants and saps.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Timber  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally.

References

Temperature Converter

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Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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Expert comment

Author

D.Don.

Botanical References

1171200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

flick   Wed Jun 29 12:40:54 2005

i found this information very unhelp for the project i was doing on pine trees, please can you put some better information on this website about this pine trees. thank you for reading this email. yours faithfully feliciy murdoch

P.Trevillion   Sat Jun 3 2006

i work on a silviculture crew in new zealand and was fascinated to find information here that i had not been able to find elsewhere. godd stuff, thanks. P.Trevillion

Anon   Sun Aug 6 2006

are you sure your information is correct? i have found different information on different websites and i think this website is wrng as the other answers were more sonsistent..

David Nicholls   Sun Nov 19 2006

I've eaten the roasted seeds of P.radiata. It was a long time ago, at the time I thought I had read you can do that in a survival book but now that I know more about plants I think I had it confused with p.pinea. I actually took a bowl of them to a party, everyone survived, although there was a fight. They tasted good, like p.pinea but terribly small with an awkward wing attached. Obviously I'm NOT advocating people do this but I'm sure it will be of interest to PFAF types.

Ken Fern, Plants for a Future.   Sun Nov 19 2006

The seeds from all species of Pines are potentially edible, though many, such as this species, are rather too small and fiddly for people to bother with. The taste can also vary between species, with several having too resinous a flavour for most tastes.

   Tue Sep 1 2009

This doesnt even tell me much. only the table up top is good. yer. so can you put some useful info on here because i need to do my project!

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