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Pinus gerardiana - Wall. ex D.Don.

Common Name Chilghoza Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Dry inner valleys[51], usually on limestone[120], to 3000 metres. Gregarious on dry steep rocky slopes on granite or clay slate in areas beyond the reach of the S.W. monsoons[146].
Range E. Asia - Afghanistan and the N. W. Himalayas.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Pinus gerardiana Chilghoza Pine


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Pinus gerardiana Chilghoza Pine
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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus gerardiana is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - raw or cooked[4, 63, 158]. Rich in oil, they have a pleasant flavour with a hint of resin and can be used as a staple food[2]. Used like pistachio nuts[183]. A very good size, up to 25cm long[200]. The seed is an important local food source[11, 146], and is considered to be a great delicacy[51, 183]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anodyne;  Antiseptic;  Diuretic;  Poultice;  Rubefacient;  Stimulant;  Vermifuge.

The seed is anodyne and stimulant[240]. The oil obtained from the seeds is used as a dressing on wounds and ulcers, it is also used externally in the treatment of head diseases[240]. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4].

Other Uses

Basketry;  Containers;  Dye;  Herbicide.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. The bark of the tree is made into baskets and also into rough buckets for fetching water[146]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Cultivation details

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. Found on clay soils in the wild[146]. Forms so far introduced into Britain are hard to establish and grow on, other provenances may be better[120]. A slow growing tree[81]. This species is cultivated for its edible seed in Asia[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].

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Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Author

Wall. ex D.Don.

Botanical References

1151200

Links / References

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Readers comment

lovely   Tue Apr 21 2009

i want to do reseach on pinuu gerdiana please tell me chemical modification which enhance the properties of it lile hydrogel

Do contact me if you have any experience growing Chilgoza at amcmillion@mac.com   Jan 15 2016 12:00AM

We will be testing out Chilghoza in Norway this year for the first time. We have been given seeds from WWF in Pakistan and will try to establish them in several locations in the highest altitudes on the dry side of Jotunheimen which protects a small region of Norway from the worst of the west-coast rainfall. In Paktistan Chilghoza seeds are highly prized and are in my view the best tasting pine seeds. They are almost entirely harvested each year by gatherers so there is not much natural propagation going on as a result. Lets hope more attention can be given to WWF Pakistan in their endeavor to protect this wonderful tree, which makes a great addition to any high-altitude forrest garden.
WWF

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