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Manihot carthaginensis glaziovii - (Müll.Arg.) Allem

Common Name Ceara Rubber Tree, Tree cassava
Family Euphorbiaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Often left behind as a relict of cultivation and therefore found in scrubs, secondary forest and waste places along roads and rivers, near paddies, old cultivated fields[303 ]. Also found occasionally in dense, primary forests[625 ].
Range S. America - northeast Brazil.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Full sun
Manihot carthaginensis glaziovii Ceara Rubber Tree, Tree cassava

Manihot carthaginensis glaziovii Ceara Rubber Tree, Tree cassava
Forest Starr & Kim Starr starrenvironmental.com


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Physical Characteristics

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Manihot carthaginensis glaziovii is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Manihot glaziovii Müll.Arg.

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves  Root
Edible Uses:

Leaves - cooked[303 ]. Eaten as a vegetable[303 ]. The leaves contain hydrocyanic acid, which is toxic, but it is destroyed by heat and so the cooked leaves are safe to eat[303 ]. Root - cooked[301 , 303 ]. A famine food, it is eaten in times of food scarcity[303 ]. The root is rich in starch but it is hard and woody[303 ]. It also contains hydrocyanic acid (see note above re the leaves)[303 ]. Seed - oily[301 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

The stem and root are ingredients in a remedy for skin infections[303 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Agroforestry Uses: The tree is used to provide temporary shade for cocoa plants[303 ]. The leaves are applied as green leaf manure[303 ]. In some areas, especially where the rainfall is low, the species is used as a hedge[303 ]. Other Uses: The plant is used in breeding programmes for cassava (Manihot esculenta), being used to improve disease resistance[303 ]. The tree is a source of latex that can be used to make rubber[303 ]. The rubber is said to be of good appearance, but the resin content, at 3 - 12%, is too high[303 ], It is, therefore, considered to be uneconomical when there are other sources. The latex can be used as a glue for paper[303 ]. The seeds contain 90 % unsaturated oil[303 ]. (This seems a very high figure[K ].) The oil might possibly be used as a fuel for pre-combustion diesel engines[303 ]. The wood is coarse-textured, straight-grained, very light in weight, very susceptible to wood-eating organisms[625 ]. Easy to cut but of quite low quality, it is used to make items such use boxes[625 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Agroforestry Services: Crop shade  Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Management: Standard  Regional Crop

A plant of the semi-arid tropics, where it is found at elevations from sea level up to 1,200 metres[303 ]. It grows in areas where the mean annual rainfall is within the range 600 - 700mm[303 ]. Prefers a position in a sunny position[625 ]. The tree tolerates a wide range of soils including very poor and acidic soils[303 ]. It can succeed in sticky red soil, which may be water logged[303 ]. Established plants are very drought tolerant[303 ]. Plants have escaped from cultivation in many of the areas in which they have been grown[305 ]. They are reported to be invasive in Hawaii[305 ]. The growth of young plants is rapid[625 ]. The plant can flower the whole year through, it probably also fruits the year round but no data is available[303 ]. The tree can be tapped at the age of 3 years[303 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Agroforestry Services: Crop shade  Plants providing crop shade especially trees.
  • Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Materials, chemicals and energy include bioplastics, rubber, biomass products gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, butane, propane, biogas. Plants are usually resprouting plants and saps.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Plant Propagation

Seed - usually sown in situ[303 ]. Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. A germination rate of around 50% can be expected, with the seed sprouting within 30 - 50 days[625 ]. Cuttings[303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Ceara Rubber Tree, False Tapioca, Manicoba, Ubi. French - manioc de ceara, maniçoba, ceara, caouchouc de ceara. Portuguese - manicoba. Swahili - mpira. Yoruba - gbaguda

S. America - northeast Brazil. Native to eastern Brazil.

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Plants have escaped from cultivation in many of the areas in which they have been grown[305 ]. They are reported to be invasive in Hawaii[305 ]. The growth of young plants is rapid[625 ].

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Abelmoschus manihotAibikaPerennial3.0 8-11 FLMHNM412
Manihot caerulescensManicobaShrub3.5 10-12 MLMNDM003
Manihot dichotomaJequie manicoba, Manihot rubber treeTree5.0 10-12 FLMHNDM001
Manihot esculentaCassava, Tapioca Plant, YucaShrub3.0 9-12 MLMHFSNDM522
Manihot heptaphyllaManicoba de Sao FranciscoTree6.0 10-12 MLMNDM003

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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(Müll.Arg.) Allem

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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