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Malpighia_glabra - L.

Common Name Escobillo, Acerola
Family Malpighiaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rocky limestone, from sea level to 1,000 metres[307 ]. Thrives at elevations between sea level and 800 metres, but it can be found at elevations up to 1,700 metres[418 ].
Range C. America - Mexico to northern S. America and the Caribbean.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Malpighia_glabra Escobillo, Acerola


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Malpighia_glabra Escobillo, Acerola
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Summary

Found in Central America, Malpighia glabra or commonly known as Escobillo is a tropical, evergreen, small fruit tree or shrub growing up to 3 m tall. It has spreading and drooping branches on its short bole. Established plants are tolerant to drought. The leaves are glossy, dark green, oval to sword-shaped, and can be wavy along the edge. The flowers are pinkish red. The bright red, ovoid fruits are eaten raw, cooked, or made into juices, sauces, jams, wines, or purees. It has a sweet flavor. It also has medicinal uses. In particular, it is used for the treatment of coughs and colds, diarrhea, dysentery, and liver problems. The bark yields a gum that is recommended as a pectoral; it is also a source of tannins. The wood is hard and heavy, and used for making small utensils.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Malpighia_glabra is an evergreen Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10 and is frost tender. The flowers are pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid and saline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Bunchosia parvifolia S.Watson Malpighia biflora Poir. Malpighia dicipiens Sessé & Moc. Malpighia fal

Habitats

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[301 ]. The bright red fruit can range in flavour from sweet to somewhat acid[296 , 301 ]. As well as being eaten out of hand, they can also be stewed, made into juices, sauces, jellies, jams, wines or purees[301 ]. The ovoid fruit is 10 - 35mm in diameter[335 ].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The fruits are considered beneficial against liver problems, diarrhoea, dysentery, coughs and colds[303 ]. The bark exudes a gum that is recommended as a pectoral[348 ].

Other Uses

Agroforestry Uses: The plants are suitable for hedges[303 ]. Other Uses The bark has been used as a source of tannin[303 ]. The wood is hard and heavy[303 ]. It can be used for making small utensils[303 ].

Cultivation details

A plant of the subtropics to hot, tropical, lowland areas with medium to high rainfall[303 , 335 ]. It can be found at elevations up to 1,700 metres, but does best below 800 metres[418 ]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 - 30°c, but can tolerate 5 - 34°c[418 ]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -2°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at -1°c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,300 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 700 - 2,400mm[418 ]. Tolerates seasonally dry periods[335 ]. Easily grown in a good soil and a sunny position[296 ]. Prefers a rich, deep and well drained soil but is able to tolerate a variety of soil conditions[303 , 335 ]. Sandy soils carry an increasing risk of nematode infection[418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7.5, tolerating 5 - 8[418 ]. Requires a pH in excess of 5.5[303 ]. Established plants are drought tolerant[307 ]. Plants are fairly tolerant of salt-laden winds[307 ]. Seedlings can fruit when only 2 - 3 years old, but are not always of as good quality as their parents[296 ]. Trees start to produce well 3 - 4 years after planting and continue for 15 years[303 ]. Plants can produce several flushes of flowers each year[307 ]. The flowers are very attractive to bees[307 ]. Plants can produce 2 - 3 crops of fruit a year[296 ]. Individual trees can produce 15 - 30 kilos of fruit each year[303 ]. Yields of 6.7 - 105 tonnes per hectare have been recorded[418 ]. Plants usually require cross-pollination to ensure a good fruit set[335 ], though there are some reports of self-fertilization[303 ]. Flowering Time: Mid Spring Late Spring/Early Summer. Bloom Color: Rose/Mauve. Spacing: 15-20 ft. (4.7-6 m).

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Propagation

Seed - germination is slow, with only 5 - 50% of the seed germinating[303 ]. Cuttings Layering Grafting

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Escobillo, Acerola, Barbados Cherry, Wild Crapemyrtle, Antilles cherry, Buesito, Cereso, Choeri, Escobillo, Murta, Palo bonito, San juanillo, San ruanillo, Simeyaranelli, So'ri, Vallari, West Indian cherry, Xochototl,

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Africa, Antilles, Asia, Australia, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Caribbean, Central America, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Africa, East Timor, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico*, Nicaragua, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, SE Asia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South America, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, USA (Texas), Venezuela, Vietnam, West Africa, West Indies,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

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Author

L.

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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