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Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina.)Standl.

Common Name Bottle Gourd
Family Cucurbitaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range A widely cultivated plant, its original habitat is obscure, though it is probably Asia or Africa.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (5 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Lagenaria siceraria Bottle Gourd

Lagenaria siceraria Bottle Gourd


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Lagenaria siceraria is a ANNUAL CLIMBER growing to 9 m (29ft 6in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10 and is frost tender. It is in flower from August to September. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


L. vulgaris.


 Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit  Leaves  Oil  Seed  Shoots
Edible Uses: Condiment  Oil

Immature fruit - cooked and used as a vegetable[2, 27, 200]. They can be boiled, steamed, fried, used in curries or made into fritters[183]. Of variable quality, but some of the selected cultivars from India and China are of very good quality, equivalent to good summer squashes[183]. The pulp around the seed is purgative and should not be eaten[46]. The fruit can be dried for later use[86]. Leaves and young shoots - cooked and used as a potherb[178, 183]. Seed - cooked. Rich in oil, it is added to soups etc[183]. A vegetable curd, similar to tofu, can be made from the seed[183]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. It is used for cooking[177, 183]. Yields of up to 45% have been obtained[240].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antibiotic  Antidote  Diuretic  Emetic  Febrifuge  Lithontripic  Odontalgic  Odontalgic  
Poultice  Purgative  Refrigerant  Skin  Stomachic  Vermifuge

The pulp around the seed is emetic and purgative[46, 178, 272]. A poultice of the crushed leaves has been applied to the head to treat headaches[257]. The flowers are an antidote to poison[218]. The stem bark and the rind of the fruit are diuretic[218]. The fruit is antilithic, diuretic, emetic and refrigerant[178, 218]. The juice of the fruit is used in the treatment of stomach acidity, indigestion and ulcers[272]. The seed is vermifuge[218]. A poultice of the boiled seeds has been used in the treatment of boils[257]. Taken with Achyranthes spp the seed is used to treat aching teeth and gums, boils etc[218]. Extracts of the plant have shown antibiotic activity[218]. In many parts of China 3 grams per day of this species (the report does not say what part of the plant) has been used as a single treatment for diabetes mellitus[218].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Bottles  Containers  Musical  Oil

The shell of well-ripened fruits is very hard and can be used for many purposes such as bottles, bowls, musical instruments etc. There are many different shapes of fruits from the various different varieties[1, 27, 46, 61, 86, 97].

Special Uses

Food Forest  Scented Plants

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Prefers a well-drained moist good rich circumneutral soil[1, 27, 86, 200]. Requires plenty of moisture in the growing season[1]. Prefers a warm sunny position sheltered from the wind[86]. The bottle gourd is widely cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its edible fruit and for the hard wooden shell of the fruit that can be used as containers, musical instruments etc[206], there are many named varieties with different shaped and sized fruits[86, 183, 206]. The variety 'Cougourda' is said to be the best for eating[132]. Forms with wooden shells tend not to have an edible flesh[206]. The plants are frost-tender annuals, they grow very rapidly and their stems can reach a length of 9 metres in the summer[86]. A warm summer is required for good production of the fruit[86]. British summers are often too cool for this species and obtaining a crop from outdoor-grown plants in this country is somewhat problematical. The best chance is by starting the plants off early in a warm greenhouse, growing them on fast and then planting them out as soon as possible but making sure that they are not checked by cold weather. Hand pollination of the fruits can increase fruit set[206]. A climbing plant, attaching itself to supports by means of tendrils that grow out of the leaf axils[206]. It can be used as a fast-growing summer screen. The leaves have a strong musky scent that some people find repulsive[206]. The plant is remarkably disease and pest-free, this might be connected to the smell of the leaves[206].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse in a rich soil, putting 2 - 3 seeds in a pot and thinning to the strongest plant. Grow on fast and plant out as soon as possible after the last expected frosts, giving some protection until the plants are established and growing well. The seed germinates best at 25°c[86]. Soaking the seeds for 12 hours in warm water prior to sowing can hasten germination[86]. Discard any seeds that have not germinated after 10 days, the plants they produce will not be vigorous enough to succeed outdoors in Britain[86].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Bottle Gourd, Alabu, Bak, Bau, Bhopala, Bogalau, Cabaca, Calabash gourd, Calabaza, Core, Crockneck gourd, Didi, Diya labu, Doodhi, Dudhi, Dudhiva, Dudhya, Ekiryo, Eparra, Fahandu, Footi, Ghia, Ghiba, Ghiya, Halagumbala, Hu lu gua, Ikhomane, Kaddu, Kalabas, Khil, Klook, Kwa-kwa, Labu air, Lami-core, Lau, Lauka, Lauki, Louki, Milau, Mirandjo-lo, Naam tao, Omparsa, Opo, Orde, Pucuo, Shorakkai, Sorekayi, Sorrakaya, Tearau, Trumpet Gourd, Tumada, Tumri, Um, Undugue, Upo, Vago, White-flower gourd, Yuugao,

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Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Africa, Angola, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Congo DR, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, East Africa, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guiana, Guinea, Guinée, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, North Africa, North America, Northeastern India, Pacific, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, PNG, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, SE Asia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, USA, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe*,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References


Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

Readers comment

Anne Atkins   Fri Sep 17 21:24:52 2004

3 small plants put into my allotment in early June. Great crop of Gourds which have now taken over all surrounding space. Half green and yellow on plants, do they keep their colour after harvesting?


Add toyour knoledge that this fruit used to open heart blockage in india

amit gangwal   Thu Jun 8 2006

the plant is also having antihyperlipidaemic activity

Amit Ratn Gangwal   Sat Jun 17 2006

it also tested for its efficacy in liver ailments and the seeds for ribosome inactivating protein for its variety of biological activity

bad   Mon Jun 18 2007

i am research scholar ,persuing studies in Lagenaria siceraria fruits and other parts of the same,could you send me the compelete pharmaclogical activities proven and also the detils pf phtoconstuituents in it,,,,solicitous

badmanaban   Sat Dec 29 2007

Pharmacognostical work has been carreid out by Badmanaban.R research scholar from mehsana district ,(shri sarvajanik college of pharmacy ) gujarat, both in the non bitter type, well in bitter type of the variety,,

   Wed Jul 2 2008

It may be noted that fruits of lagenaria siceraria has been tested in our laboratory for their immunomodulatory activity.

amit   Sat Jul 12 2008

it has been tested for immunomodulatory activity by me . i am doing ph d on this plant

   Tue Jul 15 2008

Fruits of lagenaria siceraria have been tested for immunomodulatory activity.

Rakesh P . Prajapati   Wed Nov 19 2008

I M also working on this plant. Sir would u plz inform which would be ideal method for drying of fruit asun or shade drying, ?Which extract will be good Fruit extract or juice extract?And how can we isolate curcubitacins from fruit .?

srishty rani   Sun Dec 21 2008

I M also working on this plant. Sir would u plz inform which would be ideal method for drying of fruit asun or shade drying, ?Which extract will be good Fruit extract or juice extract?And how can we isolate curcubitacins from fruit .? i am research scholar ,persuing studies in Lagenaria siceraria fruits and other parts of the same,could you send me the compelete pharmaclogical activities proven and also the detils pf phtoconstuituents in it,,,,solicitous

nidhi   Fri Apr 24 2009

my name is nidhi i am from bhopal i am working on antidiabetic,hair growth activity and hepatoprotective activity ,can i get literature regarding it.

meenal   Wed Sep 2 2009

Sir would u plz inform which would be ideal method for drying of fruit asun or shade drying, ?Which extract will be good Fruit extract or juice extract?And how can we isolate curcubitacins from fruit .? i am research scholar ,persuing studies in Lagenaria siceraria fruits and other parts of the same,could you send me the compelete pharmaclogical activities proven and also the detils pf phtoconstuituents in it,,,,

   Jun 29 2012 12:00AM

Easy to grow. I grew in a 30cm wide pot, and it easily grows in such small container. It does not need much water. Need full sun and warm and rich soil. Grows fast, first produces male flowers and then female flowers in side shots. Good to pinch of the tip when 2-3 meter long. It is self-fertile and polinization is required by hand, just like a squash. Fruit grows faster in size, like a pumpkin. My plant has stop growing longer than 3 meters because it is a container (and only made one big fruit), but I guess outside it would just keep growing and producing. Very vigorous.

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Subject : Lagenaria siceraria  
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