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Ilex cassine - L.

Common Name Cassine, Dahoon, Cassine Holly
Family Aquifoliaceae
USDA hardiness 7-11
Known Hazards Although no specific reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, the fruits of at least some members of this genus contain saponins and are slightly toxic. They can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and stupor if eaten in quantity[274].
Habitats Cold swamps and on their borders in rich moist soils. Occasionally also found on high sandy banks of pine barren streams[82].
Range South-eastern N. America - Virginia to Florida, west to Texas.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Ilex cassine Cassine, Dahoon, Cassine Holly


http://www.flickr.com/people/38459790@N03
Ilex cassine Cassine, Dahoon, Cassine Holly
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Ebyabe

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Pyramidal.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Ilex cassine is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a slow rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 6. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from October to February. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). and is pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

I. caroliniana.

Plant Habitats

Woodland Garden Secondary; Dappled Shade;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts:
Edible Uses: Tea

The dried roasted leaves can be used as a tea substitute[161, 177]. Some caution is advised since it can cause dizziness and have a laxative effect[183].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Emetic  Hypnotic  Laxative

The leaves are hypnotic and laxative[183, 192]. A strong decoction of the plant was used by some native North American Indian tribes to induce vomiting. This was seen partly as a physical and partly a spiritual cleansing[257].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Soap  Wood

The plant has been used as a soap[257]. No more information is given. Wood - soft, light, close-grained, not strong[82]. It weighs 30lb per cubic foot[235]. Of no commercial importance[229].

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Pest tolerant, Specimen. Tolerates most soils that are not water-logged[200]. A slow-growing and generally short-lived species in the wild[229]. Resents root disturbance, especially as the plants get older[11]. It is best to place the plants into their permanent positions as soon as possible, perhaps giving some winter protection for their first year or two[K]. Flowers are produced on the current year's growth[229]. Plants are very tolerant of pruning and can be cut right back into old wood if required[188]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Wetlands plant, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

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Plant Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can take 18 months to germinate. Stored seed generally requires two winters and a summer before it will germinate and should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame. Scarification, followed by a warm stratification and then a cold stratification may speed up the germination time[78, 80]. The seedlings are rather slow-growing. Pot them up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame for their first year. It is possible to plant them out into a nursery bed in late spring of the following year, but they should not be left here for more than two years since they do not like being transplanted. Alternatively, grow them on in their pots for a second season and then plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Give them a good mulch and some protection for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of almost ripe wood with a heel, August in a shaded position in a cold frame. Leave for 12 months before potting up. Layering in October. Takes 2 years.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

Expert comment

Author

L.

Botanical References

1182200

Links / References

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Readers comment

al tate   Thu May 19 16:42:18 2005

I would like to know if this holly contains caffeine. I have read that Ilex cassine, Ilex glabra, and Ilex vomitoria are used to prepare a stimulating drink. I vomitoria is well recognized as having a substantial amount of caffeine. Can you help me find out about the others?

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