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Eucalyptus viminalis - Labill.

Common Name Manna Gum
Family Myrtaceae
USDA hardiness 7-10
Known Hazards Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[269]. In large doses, oil of eucalyptus, like so many essential oils has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation[269]. Death is reported from ingestion of 4 - 24 ml of essential oils, but recoveries are also reported for the same amount[269]. Symptoms include gastroenteric burning and irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, oxygen deficiency, ,weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult respiration, delirium, paralysis, convulsions, and death, usually due to respiratory failure[269].
Habitats Cool moist sites, usually on better soils, to 1400 metres[77, 152].
Range Australia - Tasmania.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Full sun
Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum


Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum
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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Eucalyptus viminalis is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

E. angustifolia.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Manna
Edible Uses:

A manna is exuded from the leaves[4, 11, 177] (from the bark as well according to some reports[61, 177]) as a result of insect damage[144]. The red gum or manna exuding from cracks in the bark is eaten eagerly by boys[269]. Eucalyptus manna, which exudes from punctures in summer months, is sometimes consumed[269]. A very pleasant sweet taste[46, 105], it is slightly laxative[152]. The aboriginal Australians collected it after it fell to the ground, or they scraped it from the leaves[183]. Heavily covered leaves were pounded and baked[183]. Since the manna is probably formed as a result of insect damage, it is quite possible that it will not be formed in Britain because the same insects will not be able to live here[K]. The manna contains the sugars arabinose, raffinose, dextrose, and sucrose[269].

Medicinal Uses

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Antiviral  Laxative

A sweet manna exuded from the plant has a mild laxative effect[152, 238]. The essential oil found in the leaves shows an antiviral effect and can be used in the treatment of influenza[269]. The leaves inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus[269]. The leafy twig decoction was used to bathe rheumatic limbs[269].

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Other Uses

Adhesive  Essential  Fuel  Repellent  Soil stabilization  Wood

The leaves contain between 0.35 - 0.75% essential oil, of which 50 - 65% is cineol, 5% is pinene, and 10% is eudesmol[154, 269]. The bark contains 4.8 - 8% tannin[269]. The red gum or manna exuding from cracks in the bark has been used for making adhesives[269]. Planted in S. Europe for soil stabilization and to drain marshes in order to get rid of malarial mosquitoes[50]. Wood - coarse grained, durable in the soil[46, 61], excellent quality[77]. In rich soils the wood is not so hard or durable[155]. The wood, which weighs about 51 lb./cu ft, is used for building, construction, joinery, and vehicles[269]. It is considered suitable for paper pulp[269] and is a moderately good fuel[155].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Scented Plants

Cultivation details

Prefers a sunny position in a moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive circum-neutral soil[200]. Tolerates poor soils, especially those low in mineral elements[200]. Tolerates dry soils and also drought once it is established[200]. A fairly hardy species, one report suggests that it is hardy to between -15°c and -20°c[200] whilst another says that plants succumb to hard frosts[11]. Eucalyptus species have not adopted a deciduous habit and continue to grow until it is too cold for them to do so. This makes them more susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. A deep mulch around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees to survive cold conditions. The members of this genus are remarkably adaptable however, there can be a dramatic increase in the hardiness of subsequent generations from the seed of survivors growing in temperate zones[200]. Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[200]. A fast growing tree, it is often cultivated in S.W. Europe for timber, soil stabilization shelter and as an anti-malarial measure, the trees are capable of drying out wet ground, making it unsuitable for mosquitoes to breed in[50]. This species is very easily confused with E. dalrympleana[11]. Plants are shallow-rooting and, especially in windy areas, should be planted out into their permanent positions when small to ensure that they do not suffer from wind-rock[245]. They strongly resent root disturbance and should be container grown before planting out into their permanent position[11]. The flowers are rich in nectar and are a good bee crop[200].

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Propagation

Seed - surface sow February/March in a sunny position in a greenhouse[11, 78, 134]. Species that come from high altitudes appreciate 6 - 8 weeks cold stratification at 2°c[200]. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as the second set of seed leaves has developed, if left longer than this they might not move well. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and give them some protection from the cold in their first winter. The seed can also be sown in June, the young trees being planted in their final positions in late spring of the following year. The seed has a long viability[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Readers comment

   Mon Dec 3 2007

Eucalyptus-Passion Eucalyptus hardy in Europe

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