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Elaeis oleifera - (Kunth) Cort?s

Common Name American Oil Palm
Family Arecaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats More or less open forest in moist, sandy soils that are often poorly drained[ 297 ]. Low-lying wet areas along the sides of rivers and streams, often persisting in cleared areas[ 768 ].
Range S. America - northern Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, the Guyanas; C. America - Panama to Honduras.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (5 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Elaeis oleifera American Oil Palm


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Elaeis oleifera American Oil Palm
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Summary

American Oil Palm or Elaeis oleifera is a palm species native to South and Central America. It is large and single-stemmed topped by a crown of large, arching leaves. It grows at least 6 m tall. Flowers and fruits are bright red in colour and form into dense clusters. Oil obtained from the pulp is used against rheumatism and dandruff, to promote hair growth and to repel insects. The plant produces two types of oil used as cooking oil, and for making margarine, ice cream, soaps, detergents, shampoos, etc. ? palm oil (from the fruit) and kernel oil (from the seeds).


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Elaeis oleifera is an evergreen Tree growing to 4 m (13ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms

Alfonsia oleifera Kunth Corozo oleifera (Kunth) L.H.Bailey Elaeis melanococca Mart.

Habitats

Edible Uses

Oil - two types of oil are obtained from the plant. Palm oil is obtained from the fruit whilst palm kernel oil is obtained from the seed[ 297 ]. Both have a wide range of uses, including making margarine, ice cream and as a cooking oil[ 297 ].

Medicinal Uses

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The oil obtained from the pulp is applied externally in the treatment of rheumatism, to invigorate hair growth, combat dandruff and to repel insects[ 739 ]. Hairs from the leaf axils are said to be haemostatic[ 739 ].

Other Uses

Other Uses: Oil - two types of oil are obtained from the plant. Palm oil is obtained from the fruit whilst palm kernel oil is obtained from the seed[ 297 ]. These oils contain a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids[ 418 ]. Both have a wide range of uses, including making soaps, detergents, shampoos, cosmetics, hair creams, lubricating oil, additives and fluxes[ 297 , 768 ]. The oil can be applied to the body as an insect repellent[ 739 ].

Cultivation details

Management: Standard;  Regional Crop;  Staple Crop: Oil.

A plant of the lowland, moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 510 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 30?c, but can tolerate 14 - 34?c[ 418 ]. It can be killed by temperatures of 8?c or lower[ 418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,400 - 2,500mm, but tolerates 700 - 3,500mm[ 418 ]. Plants grow well in full sun, even when small[ 297 ]. Requires a humus-rich, well-drained soil, but is not fussy as to soil type[ 297 , 314 , 418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7.3[ 418 ]. A slow growing tree[ 418 ]. Plants can commence bearing just 3 years after the seed has germinated[ 297 ]. The plant produces both male and female flowers, but not usually at the same time. An individual inflorescence will be all male or all female flowers; after a series of inflorescences of one sex the plant will then produce a series of inflorescences of the opposite sex[ 768 ]. Spacing: 15-20 ft. (4.7-6 m) 20-30 ft. (6-9 m).

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Propagation

Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in warm water and sow in containers. Germination takes place in 2 - 5 months[ 297 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Corozo, Batana, Murisi, Caiaue, Noli, Ujun, Palmiche, Coquito, batana, murísi,

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Costa Rica; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; French Guiana; Suriname; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil, Amazon, Australia, Brazil, Central America, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, South America, Suriname, Venezuela,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed.

Related Plants

 

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Expert comment

Author

(Kunth) Cort?s

Botanical References

1

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For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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