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Elaeagnus macrophylla - Thunb.

Common Name
Family Elaeagnaceae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Thickets in lowland, especially near the sea[58, 184].
Range E. Asia - Japan, Korea.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun
Elaeagnus macrophylla


Elaeagnus macrophylla

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Elaeagnus macrophylla is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Oct to November. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; not Deep Shade; Hedge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit;  Seed.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[105, 177]. A very acceptable rich flavour when fully ripe, though it is somewhat astringent before then[K]. A potentially very valuable crop, ripening as it does in April and May[K]. We are not sure how reliable a crop it is though, some plants bear very heavy crops whilst others rarely bear fruit[K]. The fruit is up to 30mm long and contains a single large seed[K]. Seed - raw or cooked. A mild flavour, that has a hint of peanut, it can be eaten in quantity[K]. It can be eaten together with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous[K].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cancer.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[214].

Other Uses

Hedge;  Hedge.

Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, they are very tolerant of maritime exposure[75, 200]. Reasonably fast-growing and providing a dense cover, it gives a very good protection from the wind[K]. Plants are very tolerant of regular trimming, they can also be cut back almost to the ground and will resprout from the base[K].

Cultivation details

Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained[11, 200]. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and in dry soils[11, 200]. Succeeds in sun or shade[11, 200]. Plants are very tolerant of maritime exposure[75]. This species is hardy to about -15°c[184], succeeding in the warmer counties of Britain. This is a plant with a very big potential as a commercial fruit crop. The fruit ripens outdoors in Britain in April, a season where traditionally there is no fresh fruit available. The fruit is of a reasonable size, has a very nice flavour when fully ripe and also has a fairly large edible seed[K]. Some research needs to be carried out in order to find the conditions that are necessary to ensure good crops - some plants fruit very heavily whilst others have very light or no crops[K]. This is the second of the evergreen Elaeagnus species to ripen in the spring, about a week or 10 days later than E. cordifolia[K]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200]. Plants can succumb to wind-rock in very wet seasons[75]. Plants are sometimes damaged by voles[75]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. Allied to E. pungens and E. glabra[11]. The flowers are very aromatic[184], their aroma pervading the garden on calm days[K].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[78]. It should germinate freely within 4 weeks, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[98]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well[78]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage[78]. It is best to take the cuttings in June[202]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage[78]. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months[78].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Asia, Australia, China, Japan*, Korea, Taiwan,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Elaeagnus angustifoliaOleaster, Russian olive42
Elaeagnus commutataSilverberry32
Elaeagnus cordifolia 52
Elaeagnus formosana 22
Elaeagnus fragrans 22
Elaeagnus glabraGoat nipple42
Elaeagnus gonyanthes 22
Elaeagnus latifoliaBastard Oleaster32
Elaeagnus maritima 22
Elaeagnus montana 22
Elaeagnus multifloraGoumi, Cherry silverberry52
Elaeagnus multiflora ovataGoumi52
Elaeagnus oldhamii 22
Elaeagnus orientalisTrebizond Date42
Elaeagnus parvifoliaAutumn olive42
Elaeagnus pungensElaeagnus, Thorny olive, Thorny Elaeagnus, Oleaster, Silverberry, Silverthorn, Pungent Elaeagnus52
Elaeagnus pyriformis 22
Elaeagnus thunbergii 22
Elaeagnus umbellataAutumn Olive42
Elaeagnus x ebbingeiElaeagnus, Ebbing's Silverberry52
Elaeagnus x reflexa 32
Elaeagnus yoshinoi 22

 

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Expert comment

Author

Thunb.

Botanical References

1158200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Bob Hartley   Tue Nov 7 2006

Can anyone suggest sources in the U.S. of E. macrophylla as plants, cuttings or seed?

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