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Echinacea purpurea - (L.)Moench.

Common Name Echinacea, Eastern purple coneflower, Hedge Coneflower, Black Sampson , Purple Coneflower
Family Asteraceae or Compositae
USDA hardiness 3-10
Known Hazards Possible suppression of immunity with habitual use. High doses over 1000 mg may cause dizziness. Use of herb for 10-14 days recommended followed by a short break.
Habitats Dry open woods, prairies and barrens[43].
Range N. America - Virginia to Ohio and Michigan, south to Georgia and Louisiana.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (5 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Echinacea purpurea Echinacea, Eastern purple coneflower, Hedge Coneflower, Black Sampson , Purple Coneflower


Echinacea purpurea Echinacea, Eastern purple coneflower, Hedge Coneflower, Black Sampson , Purple Coneflower

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Pink, Purple, Red, White. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Upright or erect.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Echinacea purpurea is a PERENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Brauneria purpurea. Echinacea intermedia. Echinacea serotina. Rudbeckia purpurea.

Plant Habitats

 Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves
Edible Uses:

Leaves[160]. No more details are given.

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Adaptogen  Alterative  Antiseptic  Aphrodisiac  Depurative  Digestive  Sialagogue  Urinary


Echinacea is considered to be the most effective detoxicant in Western herbal medicine for the circulatory, lymphatic and respiratory systems[238, 254]. Its use has also been adopted by Ayurvedic medicine[238]. Plants in this genus were probably the most frequently used of N. American Indian herbal remedies. They had a very wide range of applications and many of these uses have been confirmed by modern science. This species is the most easily cultivated of the genus and so has been more generally adopted for its medicinal uses[238]. The plant has a general stimulatory effect on the immune system and is widely used in modern herbal treatments[222]. In Germany over 200 pharmaceutical preparations are made from Echinacea[222]. There has been some doubt over the ability of the body to absorb the medicinally active ingredients orally (intravenous injections being considered the only effective way to administer the plant), but recent research has demonstrated significant absorption from orally administered applications[222]. The roots and the whole plant are considered particularly beneficial in the treatment of sores, wounds, burns etc, possessing cortisone-like and antibacterial activity[222]. The plant was used by N. American Indians as a universal application to treat the bites and stings of all types of insects[213]. An infusion of the plant was also used to treat snakebites[213]. The root is adaptogen, alterative, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, sialagogue[4, 21, 61, 160, 165, 213]. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Echinacea for common cold, cough and bronchitis, fevers and cold, urinary tract infections, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, increase resistance to infection, wounds and burns (see [302] for critics of commission E).

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Nectar for insects, Deer resistant foliage.

Special Uses

Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Border,Container, Massing, Seashore, Specimen. Prefers a deep rich loam with plenty of leafmold[1] and a sunny position[175]. Succeeds in dry soils and tolerates drought once it is established[160]. Prefers a good light soil[187]. A very ornamental plant, there are some named varieties[187]. Slugs love this plant[K]. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Edible, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms. For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a clumper with limited spread [1-2]. The root pattern is a tap root similar to a carrot going directly down [1-2].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:

Fahrenheit:

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Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

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Plant Propagation

Seed - sow March/April in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed[175, K]. Diurnal temperature fluctuations aid germination[175]. The seed usually germinates in 10 - 21 days at 25°c[175]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for the first summer. Plant them out in the late spring or early summer of the following year and give them some protection from slugs at least until they are established[K]. Division in spring or autumn[111]. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. Root cuttings, October in a frame[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

NORTHERN AMERICA: United States, Indiana, Michigan (south), Ohio, Illinois, Iowa (south), Kansas (Cherokee Co.), Missouri, Oklahoma (east), Wisconsin, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Echinacea angustifoliaEchinacea, Blacksamson echinacea, Strigose blacksamsonPerennial1.2 3-8  LMHNDM052
Echinacea pallidaCone Flower, Pale purple coneflowerPerennial1.0 4-8  LMHNM05 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

Expert comment

Author

(L.)Moench.

Botanical References

43200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Al D.   Sun Dec 29 17:28:36 2002

I have found it to be *very* drought tolerant. I think this is due to the plant's deep roots.

Link: Michigan State University Horticultural Department web site Describes the plant's preferences and also describes 8 different cultivars of this species

   Sun Nov 2 2008

The statement,"Note: please don't expect a quick...."etc. is not a question. So it doesn't need a question mark. So someone who created this site's not paying attention. Doesn't exactly inspire confidence!

Waqas Ahmed   Wed Nov 19 2008

Agrarian Online Latest info about agriculture

Lawler Barnes   Sun May 31 2009

Nature Abhors a Garden Nature abhors a Garden for 11/02/08 discusses what happens when an herb is reintroduced and many aren’t aware of the experiences of 19th century users.

daniel   Wed Nov 18 2009

como obtengo las semillas ?'

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