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Dipterocarpus gracilis - Blume

Common Name Tagalog: Panao
Family Dipterocarpaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats A canopy tree of undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests at elevations up to 1200 metres[359 ]. Found in various habitats on alluvial sites; dry hillsides and ridges; limestone[359 ]. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree[359 ]
Range E. Asia - Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Dipterocarpus gracilis Tagalog: Panao

Dipterocarpus gracilis Tagalog: Panao
? Angela Hijjas www.rimbundahan.org


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Dipterocarpus gracilis is an evergreen Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 35 m (114ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10. The flowers are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Anisoptera palembanica Miq. Dipterocarpus angustialatus Heim Dipterocarpus bancanus Burck Dipterocarpus fulvus Blume Dipterocarpus marginatus Korth. Dipterocarpus pilosus Roxb. Dipterocarpus schmidtii Heim Dipterocarpus skinneri King Dipterocarpus vernicifluus Blanco

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

None known

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

The oleo-resin and also the bark of the tree have medicinal properties[418 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

A balsam resin is obtained from the trunk[46 ]. It is used in paint oils; as a coat for waterproofing paper; as a varnish for boats, walls and furniture.[46 , 418 ]. The resin is obtained by cutting a hole in the trunk near the base (about 90 - 150cm from the ground) and then dipping out the resin with a spoon as it collects there. To prolong the flow, a fire made from dead leaves or brushwood is made in the hole at intervals - this burns off the dried resinous film and allows the resin to flow again[64 , 146 ]. Dammar is a hard resin, obtained from various trees of Southeast Asia. Traditionally, it is used for purposes such as caulking boats and baskets, as an adhesive, a medicine, as a fuel for torches and sometimes in foods. Dammar has many commercial applications, though many of these uses are less important nowadays due to the advent of synthetic materials. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes etc, and is used as a glazing agent in foods[891 ]. Harvesting of the resin commences when the bole is around 25cm in diameter (approx 20 years old). Triangular cuts (becoming circular with age) are arranged in vertical rows around the trunk. The cuts are several centimetres wide at first, but become enlarged at every tapping and eventually become holes of 15 - 20cm in depth and width. The average number of holes for a tree about 30 metres tall and 60 - 80cm in diameter is 9 - 11 in each of 4 - 5 vertical rows. For the higher holes, the tapper climbs the tree supported by a rattan belt and using the lower holes as footholds. The exuded resin is allowed to dry on the tree before it is collected. The frequency with which the tree is visited to refreshen the cut varies from once a week to once a month, depending on how far the tree is from the village. Tapping can continue for 30 years[891 ]. The light-red wood is heavy, moderately hard and close-grained, but not very durable in contact with the ground[46 , 418 ]. It saws well, but is not used for boxes because of the resin it contains[146 ]. It is used for house construction[46 ]. Because of its resinous nature it is less suitable for flooring and woodwork exposed to the sun[418 ]. It is one of the important sources of keruing timber in Indo-China and is often used as a commercial grade plywood[338 ]. The wood can be used to make charcoal[418 ]. The tree is a source of keruing timber[721 , 884 ]. We do not have any more specific information for this plant, but a general description of the wood is as follows:- The heartwood varies from light to dark red-brown or brown to dark brown, sometimes with a purple tint; it is usually well defined from the 5 - 7cm wide band of gray or buff sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse; grain straight or shallowly interlocked; lustre low; there is a strong resinous odour when freshly cut, it is without taste. The wood is moderately heavy to heavy; moderately hard; somewhat durable, being resistant to dry wood borers, fairly resistant to fungi but susceptible to termites, though silica content may be high, resistance to marine borers is erratic. It seasons slowly, with a high risk of checking and distortion; once dry it is poorly stable to moderately stable in service. Silica content is variable, generally less than 0.5%. The wood generally saws and machines well, particularly when green; blunting of cutters can be moderate to severe due to silica content, stellite-tipped and tungsten carbide tools are recommended; it is sometimes difficult to glue; resin adhering to machinery and tools may be troublesome and can also interfere with finishes; nailing and screwing are good, but require pre-boring; gluing is correct, but care is required because of the resin. The wood is used for general construction work, carpentry, panelling, joinery, framework for boats, flooring, pallets, chemical processing equipment, veneer and plywood, suggested for railroad crossties if treated[303 , 316 , 848 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Management: Standard  Wild Crop

A tree of low to moderate elevations in the moist tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 1,200 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 - 32°c, but can tolerate 10 - 40°c[418 ]. It can be killed at temperatures of 5°c or lower[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 - 3,000mm, but tolerates 500 - 4,500mm[418 ]. Young trees are shade tolerant, but become increasingly light demanding as they grow larger. Prefers a medium to heavy soil[418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, tolerating 4.5 - 6.5[418 ]. Members of this genus generally only regenerate naturally in the shade of the forest. Seedlings and saplings can persist in dense forest shade for many years. In their first 2 years the young plants cannot tolerate major openings in the canopy, but after they are well established (about 120cm tall) the canopy can be opened up around them to speed up their growth[404 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Materials, chemicals and energy include bioplastics, rubber, biomass products gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, butane, propane, biogas. Plants are usually resprouting plants and saps.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Wild Crop  Some wild plants have strong historical or contemporary use. Although they are not cultivated crops, they may be wild-managed.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Plant Propagation

Seed. Members of this genus generally only regenerate naturally in the shade of the forest. Seedlings and saplings can persist in dense forest shade for many years. In their first 2 years the young plants cannot tolerate major openings in the canopy, but after they are well established (about 120cm tall) the canopy can be opened up around them to speed up their growth[404 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Borneo: Damar kumbang, Kaladan, Keruing, Keruing kesat, Keruwing daun kecil, Kruwing, Pudan, Tempurau. Java: Wuluk bulan. Malaysia: Keruing kesat, Keruing bungoh, Keruing daun halus. Philippines: Agan-an (Bicol.), Duha (Ibn.), Kurimau (Ibn.), Lalian (Tag.), Lanutan (Neg.), Lauan (Zamb., Sul.), Pagsa hingau (Tag.), Palemopang (Tag.), Palohap (Sbl.), Pamalalian (Cag., Ibn.), Pamantulen (Ilk.), Pamantuling (Pang.), Pamarnisen (Ibn.), Panao (Tag., Pang., Sbl., Ibn., Pamp.), Putsa hingan (Tag.), Sitam (Ibn.). Sumatra: Bembang.

Bangladesh; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Thailand; Singapore; Brunei Darussalam

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Critically Endangered A1cd+2cd

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Dipterocarpus alatusApitong, baume de gurjun, gurjun balsamTree30.0 10-12 SLMHSNM024
Dipterocarpus grandiflorusApitongTree40.0 10-12 SMHSNM003
Dipterocarpus kerriiKerr's KeruingTree40.0 10-12 MMHSNM023

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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