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Daniellia oliveri - (Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel

Common Name African Copaiba Balsam Tree
Family Fabaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Wooded grassland with Butyrospermum paradoxum; gregarious in deciduous forests; wooded savannah to open forest on sandy-clayey humid soil; sandy soils on laterite; granitic rocks; on alluvial terrace of large marigot[328 ].
Range Tropical Africa - Senegal to Cote D'Ivoire, east to Sudan and Uganda.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Daniellia oliveri African Copaiba Balsam Tree

Daniellia oliveri African Copaiba Balsam Tree


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Daniellia oliveri is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Paradaniellia oliveri Rolfe

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves
Edible Uses:

Tender young leaves - cooked and eaten as a vegetable[617 ]. The young leaves are only eaten in times of scarcity[317 ]. The leaves are being used increasingly as a replacement for Vitex doniana leaves, which have become more difficult to obtain due to over-exploitation[617 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

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A decoction of the root is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and skin diseases[46 ]. The gum-resin, obtained from the wood, is used medicinally[317 ]. The leaves are used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea[617 ]. The roots, leaves and the bark are used medicinally[317 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

An ogea-gum-resin, obtained from the wood, is used for the manufacture of perfume, varnishes and furniture polish[46 , 317 ]. Used locally as a gum. The heartwood is brown, sometimes with greenish-brown veins; it is not clearly demarcated from the 4 - 12cm wide band of sapwood. The texture is coarse; the grain straight or interlocked. The wood is light in weight, soft; it is not very durable, having a slight resistance to fungi and being susceptible to dry wood borers and termites. It seasons rapidly, with only a slight risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is moderately stable in service. The wood can be worked with ordinary tools, though they need to be kept very sharp because of the risk of fuzzy surfaces; nailing and screwing are good; gluing is correct, though assembling and gluing is sometimes difficult due to the warping of dried veneers. The wood is used for purposes such as boxes and crates, cheaper furniture, interior joinery, blockboard and veneer[848 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Management: Standard  Regional Crop

Daniellia oliveri occurs in tree savanna, bush savanna and in more open grassland, on any type of soil, but often on sandy soils, from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. It is often one of the dominant trees in more humid savanna and may locally constitute nearly pure stands, e.g. in temporarily flooded localities in the Sahel region. It is sometimes found on termite mounds. It is resistant to fires if these are not too frequent and not too late in the dry season.[299] Although many species within the family Fabaceae have a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria, this species is said to be devoid of such a relationship and therefore does not fix atmospheric nitrogen[755].

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Materials, chemicals and energy include bioplastics, rubber, biomass products gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, butane, propane, biogas. Plants are usually resprouting plants and saps.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Plant Propagation

Daniellia oliveri is a light-demanding species. Natural regeneration is often well. There are about 600 seeds per kg. The seed is liable to insect attack and ash should be added during storage to prevent damage. It should be soaked in water for 72 hours before sowing. The germination rate is 75?95% in 2?3 weeks. Growth in the nursery is slow and irregular. Transplanting of seedlings is not very successful; tap roots are formed rapidly, and frequent pruning of the roots is essential for successful planting. In C?te d?Ivoire and Burkina Faso the best survival rate 3 years after planting was 60%, but in most cases it was less than 20%. Seeds may also be sown directly into the field. Daniellia oliveri can also be propagated by root suckers. Weeding after transplanting is needed because of the slow growth of seedlings. As Daniellia oliveri produces many root suckers, many small trees are often found together. It can be coppiced. In Ghana it is being planted experimentally to provide fodder for cattle. It can be pruned regularly for fodder.[299]

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Accra copal, Becuncaro, Biecar, Bobe, Boto, Ilorin balsam, Kameuri, Kede, M'beta, Ogea, Pau-incenso, Po-de-incenso, Rungulo, Sambam Ulungu, Samein, Santam-o, Santam-um, Santamo, Santan, Santango, Santani, Sanya, Si-bink, Tchebe, Tchene, Tchesi, Ucumbo, Untande,

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Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Africa, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa, Central African Republic, CAR, Chad, Congo, Congo DR, C?te d'Ivoire, East Africa, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guin?e, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, West Africa, [

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Daniellia ogeaAccra copal, Ogea copalTree40.0 10-12 MLMHNM003

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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(Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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