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Cyrilla racemiflora - L.

Common Name Leatherwood, Swamp titi, Black Titi, Swamp, Myrtle, Titi Swamp, Leatherwood
Family Cyrillaceae
USDA hardiness 5-10
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rich shaded river bottoms, the borders of sandy swamps and shallow ponds of the coastal pine-belt[82]. Also found on high, sandy, exposed ridges rising above streams[82].
Range Southern North America - Virginia to Florida and Texas.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Cyrilla racemiflora Leatherwood,  Swamp titi, Black Titi, Swamp, Myrtle, Titi Swamp, Leatherwood

Cyrilla racemiflora Leatherwood,  Swamp titi, Black Titi, Swamp, Myrtle, Titi Swamp, Leatherwood
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.


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Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Irregular or sprawling, Oval.

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Cyrilla racemiflora is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 2 m (6ft 7in) at a slow rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 5. It is in leaf from April to October, in flower from August to October, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


C. parviflora. Raf.


Woodland Garden Sunny Edge;

Edible Uses

None known

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent  Styptic

The spongy bark at the base of the trunk is pliable, absorbent and astringent. It has been recommended as a styptic[82].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses


Wood - heavy, hard, close-grained, not strong[82].

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Hedge, Standard, Woodland garden. Requires a sunny position and a humus-rich soil[200]. Thrives in a mixture of peat and loam[11]. Prefers a circum-neutral or slightly acid, moisture-retentive soil[200]. This species has a wide distribution in the wild, extending southwards from South-eastern North America to Brazil. An evergreen small tree in the warmer parts of its range, only those forms from the most northerly part of its range can be grown outdoors in Britain. These northerly forms are deciduous, though may remain evergreen in mild winters[11, 200]. They usually take the form of a small shrub, but can sometimes become a small tree. They succeed outdoors in the south of Britain, though can be damaged or killed in severe winters[11]. The flowers are produced at the base of the current years growth[11, 200]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse[200]. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick out the seedlings into individual pots. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out in early summer when there is no danger of frost. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of softwood, spring in a frame[200]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Root cuttings in the spring[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Native Plant Search

Search over 900 plants ideal for food forests and permaculture gardens. Filter to search native plants to your area. The plants selected are the plants in our book 'Plants For Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens, as well as plants chosen for our forthcoming related books for Tropical/Hot Wet Climates and Mediterranean/Hot Dry Climates. Native Plant Search

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Cliftonia monophyllaIronwood, Buckwheat treeShrub4.0 7-10 SLMNM002

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References


Links / References

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Readers comment

Anthony Kaiser   Tue Mar 14 2006

I dunno. I guess I'm pretty stupid. But what I can't figure is that the description on this website bears nothing in common with a Puerto Rican website that describes "cyrilla racemiflora" in such a different light that it simply can't be the same plant you guys are talking about. For example, your site says that this species is a shrub, and that it gets to be about 2m high at its maximum growth. Then I find the same name, exactly, on this other site which says they have a specimen of cyrila racemiflora which is 69.0 feet in height. Doesn't compute. Not only that, it's supposed to have a circumference (at the base, I guess) of 254.0 feet. So I'm thinking, hey, this ain't no shrub. So what gives? You guys say a plant that is 69.0 feet high and has a circumference of 254.0 feet at the base is a shrub? I thought daffodils were shrubs, or something like that. This sucker ain't no shrub. Please let me know where everybody went wrong. My faith in botany is going bananas.

State and Private Forestry You got a big discrepancy here--what gives?

anthony kaiser   Tue Mar 14 2006

wrong e-mail address

rebuild credit   Thu Jun 5 2008

Nice Site! http://google.com

rebuild credit http://google.com

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