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Artocarpus mariannensis - Tr'cul

Common Name Seeded breadfruit, Marianas bread
Family Moraceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Found in tall native-canopy forest and secondary forest, in coral limestone and volcanic islands with steep slopes and ridges and ravine forests from coastal to lower mountain slopes[ 303 ].
Range Pacific - Palau.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (4 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Artocarpus mariannensis Seeded breadfruit, Marianas bread

Artocarpus mariannensis Seeded breadfruit, Marianas bread
flickr.com user:Lauren Gutierrez


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Artocarpus mariannensis is a large, fast-growing, tropical tree up to 20 m high with a rounded, spreading crown and broadly oval leaves. All parts of the plants are used medicinally. The latex derived from the plant is diluted and taken internally for treatment against diarrhoea, stomach pain, and dysentery. It can be applied externally as well against skin ailments and thrush and other fungal diseases. Further, it can be used as treatment for broken bones and sprain, and as relief from sciatica. Skin ailments can also be treated using crushed leaves and macerated roots of this plant. The sap from the crushed petioles is used against ear infections and sore eyes. Lastly, the bark is used against headaches. The edible fruit has a deep yellow pulp that is sweet. Mature fruits are eaten fresh while immature ones are usually roasted or baked. Seeds are cooked as well. The latex can be used to make chewing gums. Aside from being a medicinal plant and a food source, A. mariannensis provides other purposes like as a trellis for other plants or as an inter-crop. Further, the inner bark can produce fibre that is used in making cordages for fishing. It can also be used as a mosquito-repellent by drying and burning the male flowers of the plant. It is a great agroforestry species for stabilizing and enriching the soil. Other Names: ulu Elihe, Dugdug, Chebiei, Ebiei meduuliou, Dokdok, Maiyah, Mei chocho, Te mai [1b].

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Artocarpus mariannensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10. The flowers are pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline and saline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Saccus mariannensis Kuntze Unresolved

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit  Seed  Shoots
Edible Uses: Gum

Edible portion: Fruit, Seeds, Sprouts. Fruit - raw or cooked. The deep yellow pulp has a sweet aroma and taste[ 303 ]. The very ripe fruits can be eaten raw, but they, and the immature fruits, are more commonly roasted or baked[ 303 ]. Very nutritious[ 303 ]. The fruit is a small fleshy syncarp, cylindrical, kidney shaped or asymmetrical, about 15cm long and weighing about 500g[ 303 ]. Seed - cooked[ 354 ]. The roasted seed has a flavour much like a chestnut[ 354 ]. Cooked sprouted seeds are a delicacy on some atolls[ 303 ]. The seeds are high in protein, carbohydrates, low in fat, and a good source of minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin A[ 303 ]. The large, dark brown, shiny seeds are about 15mm long, with little or no endosperm. There are up to 15 seeds per fruit[ 303 ]. The latex obtained from the shoots and trunk can be used to make a chewing gum[ 303 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antidiarrhoeal  Antifungal  Astringent  Dysentery  Purgative  Skin  Stomachic

All parts of the plant are used medicinally, especially the latex, leaf tips, and inner bark[ 303 ]. The diluted latex is taken internally to treat diarrhoea, stomach-aches, and dysentery[ 303 ]. Applied externally, the latex is commonly used to treat skin ailments and fungus diseases such as thrush[ 303 ]. It is massaged into the skin to treat broken bones and sprains and is plastered on the spine to relieve sciatica[ 303 ]. The crushed leaves are commonly used as a poultice to treat skin ailments and fungus diseases such as thrush[ 303 ]. The sap from the crushed petioles (leaf stalks) is used to treat ear infections or sore eyes[ 303 ]. The root is astringent and used as a purgative[ 303 ]. When macerated, it is used as a poultice for skin ailments[ 303 ]. The bark is used to treat headaches[ 303 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Adhesive  Containers  Fibre  Fuel  Gum  Insecticide  Mulch  Plant support  Soil stabilization  String  Waterproofing  Wood

Other uses rating: High (4/5). Agroforestry Uses: The plant naturally occurs on steep ridges, cliffs, and shallow calcareous soils where it acts as a soil stabilizer[ 303 ]. It can be inter-planted with a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops such as yam, banana, coconut, taro, papaya, sugarcane, arrowroot, beach hibiscus, Indian mulberry, citrus, soursop, medicinal plants, aroids, ginger and noni, amongst others[ 303 ]. The leaves provide abundant mulch for the tree and other plants growing beneath the canopy[ 303 ]. It is an ideal tree for home gardens on atolls because of its adaptability to calcareous soils and saline conditions and especially for the beneficial shade it produces. The tree can also be used as a trellis for yam[ 303 ]. Other Uses A sticky white latex is present in all parts of the tree[ 303 ]. It is used as a chewing gum, an adhesive, and to caulk canoes[ 303 ]. A fibre is obtained from the inner bark. It is used to make strong cordage used for fishing[ 303 ]. The inner bark was formerly used to make bark cloth (tapa). Sections of the bark were hammered flat with a wooden mallet onto a wooden surface. The more the bark was beaten, the finer the cloth that was made[ K ]. Dried male flowers can be burned to repel mosquitoes and other flying insects[ 303 ]. The flexible leaves are used to wrap foods for cooking in earth ovens, and as plates[ 303 ]. The wood is light in weight, flexible, easy to work[ 303 ]. It is used to make small canoes, carve into statues, bowls, fishing floats, and other objects, although the wood needs to be protected from direct sunlight[ 303 ]. Trunks of larger trees are used to make dug-out canoes[ 354 ]. The wood is fast burning, but generally older, less productive trees are used for fuel[ 303 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming  Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Management: Standard  Regional Crop  Staple Crop: Balanced carb  Staple Crop: Basic Starch

A plant of lowland tropical areas, usually found at elevations below 150 metres[ 303 ]. It grows best in areas where the mean maximum temperature of hottest month is 29 - 31c and of the coolest month 16 - 18c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,300 - 3,800mm[ 303 ]. Older plants grow well in a sunny position, but young plants require some shade, with seedlings requiring 20 - 50% shade[ 303 ]. Prefers a light, well drained, and volcanic and shallow calcareous soil, either sandy, sandy loams or loams, with a pH in the range 6.1 - 7.4[ 303 ]. The plant tolerates saline and coralline soils and atolls[ 303 ]. Established plants can tolerate drought for a few months[ 303 ]. Trees can begin fruiting when about 5 years old[ 303 ]. It can yield 50kg of fruit per tree per year. A fruit can weigh about 500g. The flowers require cross-pollination for seeds to be produced, but unpollinated flowers will still produce a fruit[ 303 ]. The tree is shallow-rooted[ 303 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.
  • Staple Crop: Balanced carb  (0-15 percent protein, 0-15 percent oil, with at least one over 5 percent). The carbohydrates are from either starch or sugar. Annuals include maize, wheat, rice, and potato. Perennials include chestnuts, carob, perennial fruits, nuts, cereals, pseudocereals, woody pods, and acorns.
  • Staple Crop: Basic Starch  The Carbon Farming Solution. Eric Toensmeier.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Plant Propagation

Seed - it has a very short viability and should be sown as soon as it is ripe[ 303 ]. Plant out the seedlings when 125cm tall[ 303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Seeded breadfruit, Marianas bread or Artocarpus mariannensis Other Names: ulu Elihe, Dugdug, Chebiei, Ebiei meduuliou, Dokdok, Maiyah, Mei chocho, Te mai.

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Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Found In: Cook Is., Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, Kosrae, Maldives, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Pacific, Palau, Pohnpei, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Yap.

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed.

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Artocarpus altilisBreadfruitTree18.0 10-12 FLMHNM544
Artocarpus camansiBreadnut, KamansiTree15.0 10-12 FLMHNM413
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitTree15.0 10-12 FLMHSNM523
Artocarpus integerChampedakTree20.0 11-12 SLMHNM403
Artocarpus odoratissimusMarang, TerapTree25.0 10-12 MLMHNM400

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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