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Arbutus xalapensis - Kunth.

Common Name Madrono, Texas madrone
Family Ericaceae
USDA hardiness 7-10
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Drier oak forests from Sinaloa, Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon southwards. Usually found on limestone soils at elevations up to 3,000 metres[260].
Range South-western N. America - Mexico.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care (info)
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Arbutus xalapensis Madrono, Texas madrone


Arbutus xalapensis Madrono, Texas madrone
http://flickr.com/photos/nofolete/2943660314

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Arbutus xalapensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy; Secondary;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw[161, 177].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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FOOD FOREST PLANTS

Other Uses

Wood

None known

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Requires a lime-free nutrient-rich well-drained moisture-retentive soil in sun or semi-shade and shelter from cold drying winds, especially when young[200]. This species thrives on limestone soils and in dry conditions[260]. Plants are not very hardy in the colder areas of the country, tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c[200].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:

Fahrenheit:

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Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

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Propagation

Seed - best surface sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed should be soaked for 5 - 6 days in warm water and then surface sown in a shady position in a greenhouse[78]. Do not allow the compost to become dry. 6 weeks cold stratification helps[134]. The seed usually germinates well in 2 - 3 months at 20°c[134]. Seedlings are prone to damp off[184], they are best transplanted to individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and should be kept well ventilated. Grow them on in a greenhouse for their first winter and then plant out in late spring after the last expected frosts[K]. Basal cuttings in late winter[200]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, November/December in a frame. Poor percentage[78]. Layering of young wood - can take 2 years[1, 200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Arbutus andrachneGrecian StrawberryTreeTree6.0 7-10 SLMNDM303
Arbutus arizonicaArizona MaderoneTree15.0 5-9 SLMSNDM212
Arbutus canariensisCanary MadronaTree10.0 7-10  LMSNM20 
Arbutus menziesiiMadrona, Pacific madrone, Pacific MadroneTree15.0 8-9 MLMSNDM322
Arbutus texanaTexas MadroneTree8.0 7-10 SLMSNDM212
Arbutus unedoStrawberry TreeTree9.0 7-11 MLMSNDM422
Arbutus x andrachnoides Tree10.0 7-10 MLMHSNM40 
Epigaea repensMayflower, Trailing arbutus, Ground LaurelShrub0.1 3-8  LMSM222

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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Expert comment

Author

Kunth.

Botanical References

200274

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Colin Carter   Sun Feb 5 2006

You are missing something under other uses. The fruit is widely used in Southern Portugal, where the trees grow along the Algarve ranges, to produce a delicious spirit known as "medronho". I live in Spain but I can testify that this highly-underated drink produces significantly less headaches than whisky or brandy.

Colin Carter   Sun Feb 5 2006

Damn! My last post was wrong especies. I refer arbutus unedo. Please transfer the previous comments.

TST   Tue Mar 27 2007

The suggestion that Texas Madrones prefer acid soil would be quite a surprise to those growing in the wild here in the VERY alkaline (8.0pH and up) soil of the Texas Hill Country.

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Subject : Arbutus xalapensis  
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