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Araucaria angustifolia - (Bertol.) Kuntze

Common Name Parana Pine. Brazilian-pine, Candelabra-tree.
Family Araucariaceae
USDA hardiness 9-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats A dominant component of tropical, seasonal, mixed moist forest, occurring at elevations between 600 - 2,300 metres[349 ].
Range S. America - southern Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Araucaria angustifolia Parana Pine. Brazilian-pine, Candelabra-tree.

Araucaria angustifolia Parana Pine. Brazilian-pine, Candelabra-tree.


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Araucaria angustifolia is an evergreen Tree growing to 35 m (114ft) by 28 m (91ft) at a slow rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Araucaria brasiliana A.Rich. Araucaria brasiliensis A.Rich. Araucaria brasiliensis Lamb. ex Loudon Columbea angustifolia Bertol.


Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Sap  Seed
Edible Uses:

Seed similar to large pine nuts[46 , 349 ]. A mealy texture and a somewhat sweet flavour, reminiscent of sweet potatoes[301 ]. The seeds are extensively harvested in southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and the Rio Grande do Sul states), and are important for the region's small population of natives (the Kaingáng and other Southern Jê). The seeds, called pinhão are a popular winter snack. An edible gum is obtained from the tree[301 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

The species is widely used in folk medicine.

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

A resin is obtained from the bark[349 ]. The heartwood is light yellow to brown, often with purplish-pink veins; it is not clearly demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. The texture is fine and uniform, without prominent alternating bands of early and latewood; the grain is straight; there is no distinctive odour. The wood is light in weight, soft, not very durable, being susceptible to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. It can be slow to season, but with only a slight risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is moderately stable in service. The wood is easy to work with normal tools, though internal stresses in the wood may cause distortion in machining; nailing and screwing are good; glueing is correct. It is used for general building purposes, for framing lumber, interior trim, sash and door stock, flooring, furniture and veneer, as slats for Venetian blinds and also as backing for electrotypes[46 , 316 , 349 , 419 , 848 ]. It is also used for plywood, pulp and paper; and locally to make musical instruments, boxes and matches[349 ]. Useful as a fuel wood[338 , 349 ]. Grown as an ornamental plant in parks of towns and cities of Chile, from Santiago to Valdivia.

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Management: Standard  Regional Crop  Staple Crop: Balanced carb

Found in humid areas of the tropics and subtropics, which experience a mild to hot summer without a dry season[349 ]. The plant is found at elevations between 200 - 2,200 metres, but is only found below 500 metres where cool air flows from the highlands towards the valleys[418 ]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 18 - 23c, but can tolerate 9 - 27c[418 ]. Mature plants can be killed by temperatures of -5c or lower, but new growth will be severely damaged at 0c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 1,250 - 2,500mm[418 ]. Grows best in a sunny position[418 ]. Prefers a medium-textured, moist but well-drained soil[418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7.5[418 ]. Established plants are drought tolerant[418 ]. Optimum annual wood production is 10 - 23 cubic metres per hectare[418 ]. A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[419 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.
  • Staple Crop: Balanced carb  (0-15 percent protein, 0-15 percent oil, with at least one over 5 percent). The carbohydrates are from either starch or sugar. Annuals include maize, wheat, rice, and potato. Perennials include chestnuts, carob, perennial fruits, nuts, cereals, pseudocereals, woody pods, and acorns.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual containers[134 , 419 ]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 2 months at 15c[134 ]. The plants have a rather sparse root system and are best placed in their final positions as soon as possible.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Cori, Curi, Curiuva, Parana-pine, Pinheiro-do-parano, Pinheiro, Pinho, Pinho-brasileiro, Pinheiro-brasileiro, Pinheiro-sao-jose, Pinheiro-macaco, Pinheiro-caiova, Pinheiro-das-missoes, Pohon arukaria brasil

Native Plant Search

Search over 900 plants ideal for food forests and permaculture gardens. Filter to search native plants to your area. The plants selected are the plants in our book 'Plants For Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens, as well as plants chosen for our forthcoming related books for Tropical/Hot Wet Climates and Mediterranean/Hot Dry Climates. Native Plant Search

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Argentina, Asia, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Paraguay, Peru, SE Asia, South America, Tasmania, Uruguay

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Critically Endangered A2cd

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Expert comment


(Bertol.) Kuntze

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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