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Albizia procera - (Roxb.) Benth.

Common Name White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris
Family Fabaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree[ 303 ].
Habitats The habitat ranges from monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest[ 303 ]. It is commonly found in open secondary forest[ 303 ].
Range E. Asia - Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (4 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Albizia procera White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris


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Albizia procera White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris
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Summary

White Siris (Tall Albizia). Albizia procera. Other known common names are Forest Siris, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree. Albizia procera or White Siris is widely harvested from the wild for its timber and is used in fuel wood plantations or as an ornamental tree. It is fast-growing, has an open canopy, and grows up to 30 m tall. Its bole may be straight or crooked, and can reach up to 60 cm in diameter. Leaves are cooked and eaten as vegetables. White Siris is known for its use in traditional medicine. Further, all of its parts are believed to have an anti-cancer function. The roots have spermicidal activity. Decoction of bark can treat rheumatism and haemorrhage and is useful in treating pregnancy problems and stomach ache. The bark is also used for tanning and dyeing but it has, however, low tannin content. The leaves are plastered onto ulcers and have insecticidal and piscicidal activities. The tree has a good soil-binding capacity, provides shade in plantations, and used as wind- and fire-breakers. Twigs or branches are used for laying out tea gardens. Wood is widely used for several purposes like construction, furniture, boats, flooring, and carts, among others.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10 and is frost tender. The flowers are pollinated by Insects.
It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosa elata Roxb. Mimosa procera Roxb.

Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Inner bark  Leaves  Seedpod
Edible Uses:

Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable. The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable[ 303 ]. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten[ 303 ].

Medicinal Uses

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White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded[ 303 ]. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity[ 303 ]. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage[ 303 ]. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache[ 303 ]. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers[ 303 ].

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Other Uses

Other uses rating: High (4/5). Agroforestry Uses: The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity[ 303 ]. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak[ 303 ]. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils[ 303 ]. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites[ 303 ]. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems[ 303 ]. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance[ 303 ]. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species)[ 303 ]. The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties[ 303 ]. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders[ 303 ]. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well[ 303 ]. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well[ 303 ]. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites[ 303 ]. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm)[ 303 ]. The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel[ 303 ].

Cultivation details

Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres[ 200 , 303 ]. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 - 18 up to 37 - 46c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 - 5,000 mm[ 303 ]. Plants are susceptible to frost[ 303 ]. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils[ 303 ]. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils[ 303 ]. Established plants are drought tolerant[ 303 ]. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade[ 303 ]. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season[ 303 ]. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed[ 303 ]. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species[ 303 ]. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland[ 303 ]. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 - 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years[ 303 ]. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years[ 303 ]. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species[303. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown[ 303 ]. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged[ 303 ]. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water[ 303 ]. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers[ 303 ]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[ 200 ]. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils[ 303 ].

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Propagation

Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%[ 303 ]. Seeds that have been stored for 4 - 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately[ 303 ]. This doubles the germination rate[ 303 ]. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination[ 303 ]. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot[ 303 ]. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage[ 303 ]. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or - 2% mc[ 303 ]. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season[ 303 ]. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering[ 303 ]. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed[ 303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Akleng-parang, Bellate, Doon siris, Karo, Karunthagara, Kinhai, Konda vagei, Koroi, Raom tree, Soros-tree, Safed Siris, Silver bark rain tree, Tella chinduga, Tram kang, Weru, White siris, Women’s Tongues.

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

A. procera is a fast-growing, light-demanding and fairly drought-tolerant species that root suckers after damage and coppices readily. This tree has the potential to become a weed in some environments because of its aggressive growth potentially/possibly invasive woody species. In the absence of regular burning it will colonize Imperata grassland.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed.

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Albizia julibrissinMimosa, Silktree, Mimosa Tree,22
Albizia lebbeckSiris Tree, Woman's Tongue, East Indian Walnut12
Albizia lucidiorPotka siris tree00

 

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(Roxb.) Benth.

Botanical References

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A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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