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Acacia leucophloea - (Roxb.) Willd.

Common Name Kuteera-Gum, White-barked acacia.
Family Fabaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats A component of dry-forests, savannahs, bush woodlands, and desert ecosystems from sea level to elevations of 800 metres[303 ]. Usually found on soils with poor to moderate fertility[310 ].
Range E. Asia - Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Acacia leucophloea Kuteera-Gum, White-barked acacia.

J.M.Garg wikimedia.org
Acacia leucophloea Kuteera-Gum, White-barked acacia.
J.M.Garg wikimedia.org


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Acacia leucophloea is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10. The flowers are pollinated by Insects.
It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Acacia alba (Rottler) Willd. Acacia arcuata Decne. Acacia melanochaetes Zoll. Delaportea ferox Gagnep. Delaportea microphylla Gagnep. Mimosa alba Rottler Mimosa leucophloea Roxb.

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Seed
Edible Uses:

The germinated seeds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable[303 , 310 ]. They contain crude protein 27 % dry matter. The other major nutrient contents are crude lipid 5 %, crude fibre 7 %, ash 4 % and total crude carbohydrates, 58 %[303 ]. The seeds are a rich source of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and manganese[303 ]. The predominant seed protein fractions are globulins and albumins[303 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

The gum obtained from the stem is used medicinally[303 , 310 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses


Agroforestry Uses: The tree is suitable as a firebreak due to its fire resistance[303 ]. A good reforestation species for poor soils in low rainfall areas[303 ]. Other Uses The source of a low quality gum that is used to adulterate gums of higher quality[303 ]. A water-soluble gum of fair quality can be extracted from the stem and root bark[303 ]. The leaves yield a black dye, whilst the bark produces a reddish-brown substance used to manufacture dyes and tannins[303 ]. The bark contains 11 - 20% tannins, with older trees containing higher quantities[310 ]. The strong but coarse fibres from the inner bark are used to make fish nets and rough rope[303 , 310 , 454 ]. It might be useful for making paper[454 ]. The brick-red heartwood is very beautiful, strong, heavy and hard[303 ] It is durable indoors, but decays quickly if in contact with moist soil[310 ]. The pale yellow sapwood is perishable[303 ]. The heartwood seasons well and takes a good polish[303 ]. Although a little hard to work, the wood is used to make decorative furniture[303 , 310 ]. Other commodities produced from the wood include poles, farming implements, carts, wheels, turnery, indoor construction timbers and flooring[303 ]. The utilization of this species is limited because its wood has irregular interlocked grain, a rough texture and is difficult to work[303 ]. The wood is appreciated as fuel and is suitable for charcoal production[303 , 310 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming  Nitrogen Fixer

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Agroforestry Services: Nitrogen  Fodder: Pod  Management: Standard  Regional Crop

A tree of tropical and subtropical climates, it is found at elevations ranging from sea level to 800 metres[303 ]. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, succeeding in areas with a mean annual temperature in the range 6 - 49c[303 ]. It grows best in areas with a mean annual rainfall of 400 - 1,500mm, succeeding even in areas where the dry season may persist for 9-10 months[303 ]. It can succeed in humid areas with a rainfall of 2,000mm, and also in semi arid areas with only 600mm of rain[310 ]. Succeeds on sands, infertile rocky soils, limestone soils, organic clays and in alluvial areas[303 ]. Requires a sunny position and a well-drained soil[310 ]. On fertile soils, A. Leucophloea seedlings grow quickly, up to 60 cm a year. Under irrigation, height growth may reach 7 - 10 m in 5 - 6 years[303 ]. Seedlings are light demanding and sensitive to weed competition, fire and frost. In order to exploit sufficient soil moisture, seedling root growth generally exceeds shoot growth. The trees produce a deep taproot and, once established, are very tolerant of drought, fire and frost[303 , 310 ]. Trees respond well to coppicing[303 ]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200 ]. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria which enables it to survive on infertile sites[303 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Agroforestry Services: Nitrogen  Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include the legume family – Fabaceae.
  • Fodder: Pod  Fodder plants with pods.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Regional Crop  These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally but have not been adopted elsewhere and are typically not traded globally, Examples in this broad category include perennial cottons and many nuts and staple fruits.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



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Plant Propagation

Seed - pre-treatment is necessary to break the hard seed coat. To encourage uniform germination, seed should be scarified either by submerging in boiled water that is allowed to cool for 24 hours, or by soaking in sulphuric acid for 10-30 minutes followed by soaking in cool water for 24 hours[303 ]. The visibly swollen seeds should be sown immediately[303 ]. Germination can still take 75 days[310 ]. Viability of dried seeds can be maintained for up to 2 years at room temperature[303 ]. When sown outdoors, the seed should be sown at a depth of 1 cm in lines 20-25 cm apart. Germination begins within a week[303 ]. Plants can be established by direct sowing, stump sprouts or seedlings. Direct sowing is preferred because the large roots of seedlings may hamper transplanting[303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Akasia pilang, Arinj, Bilijali, Chalep deng, Haribaval, Hewar, Hivur, Hiwar, Jhira, Katu andara, Keo trang, Kikar, Nimbar, Pattacharaya maram, Pilang, Reru, Reunja, Ronj, Safed babul, Safed kikar, Shvetabarbura, Tanaung, Tellatuma, Velva-yalam, Velvel

Africa, Asia, Cambodia, East Africa, East Timor, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Pakistan, SE Asia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Vietnam

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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(Roxb.) Willd.

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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Subject : Acacia leucophloea  
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