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Terminalia ferdinandiana - Exell

Common Name Billy Goat Plum
Family Combretaceae
USDA hardiness 9-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Sandplains behind beaches, dry creek beds, flood plains, cliff tops, ridges, coastal vine thickets, mangrove edges in Western Australia[285 ].
Range Australia - Northern Australia, Queensland, Western Australia.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Half Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Terminalia ferdinandiana Billy Goat Plum

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Terminalia ferdinandiana Billy Goat Plum


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Native to Australia, Billy Goat Plum or Terminalia ferdinandiana is a small to mediumsized deciduous, flowering tree, about 10-14 m high, with a spreading and rounded crown. Its bark is creamy gray and rough. The leaves, large, smooth, leathery, oval to round, occur in spirals near the ends of small branches. Flowers are cream, small, fragrant, and in spikes in the leaf axils towards terminal part of the branches. The almond-shaped fruit, soft and yellow green, has high ascorbic acid or vitamin C content. It is pounded and used as an antiseptic. It can be eaten raw, cooked, or made into preserved or jams. The seeds are edible. The inner bark of the tree is used as treatment for skin conditions and infections like wounds, sores, and boils. T. ferdinandiana is tolerant to drought but frost sensitive. It can be grown from fresh seeds.

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Terminalia ferdinandiana is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 9 and is not frost tender.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Myrobalanus edulis Kuntze Terminalia edulis F.Muell. Terminalia latipes psilocarpa Pedley

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[296 , 301 , 777 ]. Eaten fresh, it can have a drying effect in the mouth[777 ]. Used in making preserves, jams etc[301 ]. About 3cm long, it has a slightly bitter-tasting flesh[296 ]. The fruit looks and tastes like a gooseberry[301 ]. It is one of the world's richest natural sources of ascorbic acid with some forms containing up to 3,150mg of ascorbic acid per 100g of fruit[301 ]. When ripe, the fruit is soft and has a yellow-green colour - to harvest you merely shake the trunk of the tree and the ripe fruits fall to the ground[296 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiseptic  Vitamin C

The pounded fruit is used as an antiseptic and as a soothing balm for aching limbs[777 ]..

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Other Uses: None known

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Succeeds in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil in a sunny position[200 ]. Found in the wild on red sands, sandy clay, black peat, sandstone, ironstone and granite soils[285 ]. The fruit of this species could contain the highest concentration of vitamin C to be found in any fruit in the world[307 ]. It is being researched for its commercial potential[307 ].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

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Plant Propagation

Seed -

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Wild plum, Gubinge, Murunga, Manmohpan, Gobin, Mador, Nanka-bakarra,


Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

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Terminalia chebulaBlack Myrobalan, Chebulic Myroblan,Tree25.0 10-12 SLMHNM354
Terminalia ivorensisBlack AfaraTree30.0 10-12 FLMHNM024
Terminalia kaernbachiiOkari NutTree20.0 10-12 FLMHNM502
Terminalia sambesiaca Tree32.0 10-12 FLMHNDM043
Terminalia superbaShinglewoodTree40.0 10-12 FLMHNM024

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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