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Oryza sativa - L.

Common Name Rice, Common Rice
Family Poaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Not known in a truly wild situation
Range Only known in cultivation.
Edibility Rating    (5 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Wet Soil Water Plants Full sun
Oryza sativa Rice, Common Rice

Oryza sativa Rice, Common Rice
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Oryza sativa or commonly known as rice is an erect grass growing about 30 - 180 cm tall, depending on the variety. It has been cultivated since ancient times and remain to be one of the most commonly cultivated food crops in the world. It is the staple food for all classes, particularly in Southeast Asia. It has two major subspecies - japonica (sticky and short-grained) and indica (non sticky and long-grained). The former is usually cultivated in dry fields and upland areas while the latter is mainly cultivated in the lowland areas and submerged, throughout tropical Asia. The seeds are cooked, either by boiling or steaming. The seed also yields oil which can be used in cooking or as a salad oil. The oil can also be used for soap making or made into a plastic packaging material. Rice also has medicinal uses. It is diuretic and used to treat urinary dysfunctions. Excessive lactation, poor appetite, and indigestion can be treated using the seeds. Rhizome, on the other hand, is taken internally as treatment for night sweats, tuberculosis, and chronic pneumonia. Rice starch is also used in cosmetics, textiles, and laundering starch. Rice straw is used for weaving, paper production, and construction of grain storage structures, ropes, packaging materials, and bags. It is also used as thatching material or as fuel.

Physical Characteristics

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Oryza sativa is a ANNUAL growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can grow in water.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Oryza palustris Salisb. Oryza communissima Lour. Oryza glutinosa Lour. Oryza montana Lour. Oryza pra

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Oil  Seed
Edible Uses: Oil

Seed - cooked. It is usually either boiled or steamed and can be eaten in a wide variety of both savoury and sweet dishes[238 ]. It is an essential accompaniment for curries and Far Eastern dishes, it is used in European dishes such as paella and risotto, whilst it is also used in sweet dishes such as rice pudding[238 ]. The grain can also be popped like popcorn to make a breakfast cereal[238 ]. An oil is obtained from the seed[418 ]. It is used in cooking and as a salad oil[418 ].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

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Antihydrotic  Appetizer  Tonic  Urinary

Rice is a nutritive, soothing, tonic herb that is diuretic, reduces lactation, improves digestion and controls sweating[238 ]. The seeds are taken internally in the treatment of urinary dysfunction[238 ]. The seeds, or the germinated seeds, are taken to treat excessive lactation[238 ]. The germinated seeds are used to treat poor appetite, indigestion abdominal discomfort and bloating[238 ]. The grains are often cooked with herbs to make a medicinal gruel[238 ]. The rhizome is taken internally in the treatment of night sweats, especially in cases of tuberculosis and chronic pneumonia[238 ]. The rhizomes are harvested at the end of the growing season and dried for use in decoctions[238 ].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Cosmetic  Fibre  Fuel  Oil  Paper  Soap making  String

Other Uses Although grown mainly for food, rice starch it is also used in cosmetics, laundering starch, and textiles[418 ]. An oil is obtained from the seed[418 ]. It is used for soap manufacture and it is made into a plastic packaging material[418 ]. Rice straw is used for weaving into hats, shoes etc[46 , 272 ]. Rice straw is also used for making and repairing thatched houses in Bangladesh, Nepal and India. It is used for construction of grain storage structures, ropes, packaging material and bags in India[418 ]. It is also used as a fuel in Vietnam[418 ]. In China, India, Indonesia and Pakistan rice straw is used in the production of paper[418 ]. The grain husks are used as a fuel; as an addition to concrete; for making hardboard; and as an abrasive[418 ].

Special Uses

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Rice can be grown in the moist tropics and subtropics, succeeding at elevations up to 2,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 30°c, but can tolerate 10 - 36°c[418 ]. Growth ceases below 10°c and plants have no tolerance to frost[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 1,000 - 4,000mm[418 ]. Requires a wet to inundated soil and a position in full sun[238 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7, tolerating 4.5 - 9[418 ]. Depending upon variety, rice can mature a crop of seed in anything from 60 - 200 days[418 ]. There are many named varieties that have been developed to suit a wide diversity of climates and soil types[200 ]. These can be grouped into two main forms:- Lowland - this is grown in land that is flooded during the growing season[46 ]. Upland - this form does not require submersion by water[46 ]. There are many different cultivars of each form. Some of these cultivars are starchy and are more suited to use in cakes, soups, pastry, breakfast foods etc[46 ]. Other cultivars have a sweeter, glutinous texture, these are used for special purposes such as sweetmeats[46 ]. Within these divisions, the varieties are further defined by whether they have short, medium or long grains[46 ]. Long grained forms usually have the highest value, though short-grained forms are preferred in many countries[46 ]. Flowering Time: Late Summer/Early Fall. Bloom Color: Cream/Tan. Spacing: 18-24 in. (45-60 cm).

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Plant Propagation

Seed -

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Rice, Common Rice, Akki, Ari, Arisi, Arroz, Arus, Ba, Bak, Beras, Bhat, Bhatta, Biring, Biyyamu, Byeo, Chahai, Chal, Chaval, Chawal, Choka, Dangar, Dao, Dhan, Dhanya, Kao chow, Kao nyo, Kao, Kome, Mo, Nasi, Nellu, Nivara, Padi, Pari, Raisi, Reis, Riso, Riz, Schinkafa, Syali, Tandula, Re raiti, Vadlu, Varidhanyamu, Vrihi, akkiege, amidon de riz, amylum oryzae, ari, arishi, arisi, arroz, arshee, asian, rice, aval, bhata, chamul, bhatta, bhatto, biranj, brown rice, bras, buru, calav cha, chanval, chaval, chavel, chawl, chho, chhosan, chokha, chorya, coke, corava, damgara, dao, daoya, dha, dhan, dhana, dhanarmul, dhanyamu, dhanya, fructus oryzae germinatus, ine, jhona, jo, lhma, lowland rice, mi-tong-kar-la, mlda, nellu, nelver, nivara, odalu, oryzae amylum, oryzae fructus, oryzae fructus germinatus, oryzae radix, oryzae semen, paddy, paddy plant, padi, rais, reis, ri, rice, rice starch, rice-grain sprout, rice|wee, ris, riso, riz, rozz, sali, sali bhat, shali, shalichokha, sun, tandul, tandulamul, ta??ulama, thavidu, upland rice, vadlu, vrihi, wa, ya, yam, sali (fruit), sali (root).

Africa, Angola, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Central America, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo DR, Congo R, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Africa, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial-Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinée, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Africa, North America, Northeastern India, Pacific, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, PNG, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, SE Asia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Uganda, USA, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Africa, West Indies, Zambia, Zimbabwe,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Oryza hybridsPerennial RicePerennial2.0 7-12 FLMHNMWeWa422
Oryza longistaminataPerennial wild ricePerennial1.5 10-12 FLMHNMWeWa202
Rhynchoryza subulataArroz bravoPerennial0.3 9-12 FLMHNMWe300

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References

Links / References

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A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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Subject : Oryza sativa  
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