We depend on donations from users of our database of over 8000 edible and useful plants to keep making it available free of charge and to further extend and improve it. In recent months donations are down, and we are spending more than we receive. Please give what you can to keep PFAF properly funded. More >>>

Follow Us:


Chrysogonum virginianum - L.

Common Name Golden-knee, Green and Gold, or Goldenstar
Family Compositae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Native to woodland areas from Pennsylvania to Florida and Louisiana in moist well drained soils in part sun or part shade often growing as a natural groundcover.[368-1]. Indigenous to mesic to dry woodlands and open rocky woodlands. Plants are more likely to be found in forest edges and clearings with bright filtered light rather than in densely shaded interiors.
Range Native to the eastern United States from New York to Florida and Louisiana.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun
Chrysogonum virginianum Golden-knee, Green and Gold, or Goldenstar

Chrysogonum virginianum Golden-knee, Green and Gold, or Goldenstar
Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) wikimedia.org


Translate this page:


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Chrysogonum virginianum is an evergreen Perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 6.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Chrysogonum australe Alexander ex Small, syn of var. australe.Diotostephus repens Cass., syn of var. brevistolon


Edible Uses

None Known

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

None known

References   More on Medicinal Uses

Now available: PLANTS FOR YOUR FOOD FOREST: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens.

An important new book from PFAF. It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, including carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield. The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth.

Read More


Other Uses

C. virginianum spreads slowly via stolons to form a groundcover. Wildlife Habitat: A host wildlife such as reptiles, mammals, and songbirds. Insectary: The flowers provide nectar to pollinators. Ornamental Green and Gold is often planted ornamentally for its light green triangular foliages and golden star-shaped flowers. There are a number of named cultivars selected for ornamental properties[318-1].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Food Forest  Ground Cover

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

A low growing herbaceous perennial with starry golden daisy-like flowers native to the USA. Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, acidic, organically rich soils in sun-dappled part shade. Tolerates full sun only if grown in consistently moist soils. Spreads by rhizomes to form an attractive ground cover, but is easily controlled[368-1]. Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast. Stand Persistence: Long. Form: Spreading. Texture: Medium. Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade. Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay. Soil Moisture: Moderate. Root Type: Stolon, Fibrous Shallow. Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 10:1-100:1. Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall. In the US it grows more upright in northern climates and more prostrate in southern climates. Recommended to naturalize in rain gardens. Best in well-drained soils. Blooms sparsely during the heat of summer. Fruit Type: Achene. Flower Color: Yellow. Soil pH preference: 6.0 - 6.8. Drought: Moderate. Flood: Tolerant. Salt: Intolerant. Soil Compaction: Intolerant. Cold Injury: Moderate. Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent. Disease Issues: Minor. Insect/Pest Damage: Minor. Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits. Growing Season: Bloom Time: Spring - Fall. Fruit Time: Spring - Fall [318-1]. For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a clumper with limited spread [1-2]. An evergreen. The root pattern is rhizomatous with underground stems sending roots and shoots along their length [1-2]. Used in the Beach Plum Tree Guild: (Polycultures: Permaculture Activist Magazine February 2013, Eric Toensmeier.) Beach Plum (Prunus maritima) This fruiting shrub can grow to over 12 feet (4 meters) and produces small, delicious plums. Niche: deciduous shrub. Habitat: average water needs, Full to partial sun, Prefered soil types UNKNOWN (assume loamy soil is good?). Notable Products: Edible fruit, Green and Gold (Chrysogonum virginianum) This is a beautiful groundcover that attracts beneficial insects and can grown in partial shade and moist soils. Niche: Ground cover. Habitat: Requires consistently moist soil that drain, Full sun to partial shade, Notable Products: Nectar. Dwarf Coreopsis (Coreopsis auriculata nana) This is another beautiful groundcover that attracts beneficial insects. Niche: Herbaceous perennial. Habitat: Full sun, medium water needs, said to be native to open woods in South Eastern US, so it probably can survive in a variety of soil types. Notable Products: Nectar, pollen. Ramps (Allium tricoccum) a.k.a. Wild Leeks, are early Spring vegetables and grows well in the shade. Niche: Herbaceous perennial. Habitat: Shaded woodlands, average water needs, preferes wet and acid soils. Tolerats juglone. Notable Products: Edible leaves and bulbs. Camas (Camassia quamash) has edible bulbs and has flowers that attract beneficial insects. Niche: Small Herbaceous Plant. Habitat: Full sun to light shade, prefers moist soil, pH: 5.1-7.5 (tolerates a wide range of soil conditions). Notable Products:Nectar, pollen, edible bulb. Notes: This is a polyculture with flowering plum and ground cover, edible Spring vegetables, and edible Camas bulbs.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

Shop Now


Easily grown from seed and may self-seed in the garden.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Golden-knee, Goldenknee, Green and gold, Goldenstar

Native Plant Search

Search over 900 plants ideal for food forests and permaculture gardens. Filter to search native plants to your area. The plants selected are the plants in our book 'Plants For Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens, as well as plants chosen for our forthcoming related books for Tropical/Hot Wet Climates and Mediterranean/Hot Dry Climates. Native Plant Search

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Bongardia chrysogonum Perennial0.2 8-11 SLNDM21 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


Print Friendly and PDF

Expert comment



Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Chrysogonum virginianum  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567.