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Artemisia annua - L.

Common Name Qing Hao, Sweet sagewort
Family Asteraceae or Compositae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards Skin contact with the plant can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people[222]. The pollen is extremely allergenic[269].
Habitats Occurs naturally as part of a steppe vegetation in the northern parts of Chahar and Suiyuan provinces in China, at 1000 to 1500 m above sea level[269].
Range S. E. Europe to W. Asia.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (4 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Artemisia annua Qing Hao, Sweet sagewort

Artemisia annua Qing Hao, Sweet sagewort


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Artemisia annua is a ANNUAL growing to 3 m (9ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 7. It is in flower from August to September, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Plant Habitats

 Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts:
Edible Uses: Condiment

An essential oil in the leaves is used as a flavouring in spirits such as vermouth[269].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antibacterial  Antiperiodic  Antiseptic  Carminative  Digestive  Febrifuge  Malaria  Miscellany

Qing Ho, better known in the West as sweet wormwood, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. An aromatic anti-bacterial plant, recent research has shown that it destroys malarial parasites, lowers fevers and checks bleeding[238, 254, 279]. It is often used in the Tropics as an affordable and effective anti-malarial[254]. The leaves are antiperiodic, antiseptic, digestive, febrifuge[176, 178]. An infusion of the leaves is used internally to treat fevers, colds, diarrhoea etc[222, 254]. Externally, the leaves are poulticed onto nose bleeds, boils and abscesses[222, 238]. The leaves are harvested in the summer, before the plant comes into flower, and are dried for later use[254]. The plant contains artemisinin, this substance has proved to be a dramatically effective anti-malarial against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium spp[218, 238, 254, 269]. Clinical trials have shown it to be 90% effective and more successful than standard drugs[254]. In a trial of 2000 patients, all were cured of the disease[218]. The seeds are used in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion and night sweats[222].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Essential  Herbicide  Miscellany

The plant is used in China as a medium for growing Aspergillus which is used in brewing wine. The substances mentioned above in the medicinal uses, used in the treatment of malaria, also show marked herbicidal activity[222]. The plant yields 0.3% essential oil[240]. This has an agreeable, refreshing and slightly balsamic odour and has been used in perfumery[240].

Special Uses

Scented Plants

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

An easily grown plant, succeeding in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position[1, 200]. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil[245]. A fast-growing annual plant, it is tall but neat in habit with a handsome fragrant foliage and is useful for filling gaps at the back of a border[238]. It has become a weed of waste places in many areas of the world[43]. The plant is extremely vigorous and essentially disease and pest free[269]. Qing Hao is a determinate short-day plant. Non-juvenile plants are very responsive to photoperiodic stimulus and flower about two weeks after induction. The critical photoperiod seems to be about 13.5 hours, but there are likely to be photoperiod x temperature interactions. In Lafayette Indiana, USA (40°21'N) plants flower in early September with mature seeds produced in October. The plant is not adapted to the tropics because flowering will be induced when the plants are very small[269]. Most collections of artemisia derive from natural stands with highly variable artemisinin content, some as low of 0.01%. Selections from Chinese origin vary from 0.05 to 0.21%. Swiss researcher N. Delabays reports a clonal selection derived from Chinese material which produces 1.1% artemisin but is very late flowering; proprietary hybrids have been obtained with somewhat lower content but flower earlier[269]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Plant Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame and plant out in late spring or early summer. Alternatively, the seed can be sown late spring in situ.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

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Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

This plant can be weedy or invasive. Some evidence it is weedy in Kentucky, USA.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed.

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Artemisia abrotanumSouthernwoodShrub1.2 4-8  LMHSNDM133
Artemisia absinthiumWormwood, Absinthium.Perennial1.0 4-9 MLMSNDM132
Artemisia anomala Perennial1.0 -  LMHSNM02 
Artemisia argyi Perennial1.5 -  LMSNDM02 
Artemisia biennisBiennial WormwoodAnnual/Biennial1.0 0-0  LMSNDM111
Artemisia campestrisField SouthernwoodPerennial1.5 4-8  LMSNDM021
Artemisia campestris glutinosa Perennial1.5 -  LMSNDM001
Artemisia capillarisYin Chen HaoShrub0.5 6-9  LMSNDM13 
Artemisia caruifolia Annual1.0 -  LMSNDM131
Artemisia cinaCina, SantonicaShrub1.0 0-0  LMSDM03 
Artemisia dracunculoidesRussian Tarragon, Tarragon, French TarragonPerennial1.0 5-8 MLMSNDM211
Artemisia dracunculusTarragon, French TarragonPerennial0.6 5-9 MLMSNDM423
Artemisia filifoliaSand Sage, Sand sagebrushShrub1.2 3-7  LMSNDM021
Artemisia frigidaFringed Wormwood, Prairie sagewortPerennial0.3 3-10  LMNDM223
Artemisia glacialisGlacier WormwoodPerennial0.2 4-8  LMHNDM12 
Artemisia gmeliniiRussian Wormwood, Gmelin's wormwoodPerennial1.5 3-7  LMHNDM112
Artemisia indica Annual/Perennial1.2 6-9  LMSNDM132
Artemisia japonica Perennial1.0 7-10  LMHSNDM121
Artemisia keiskeana Perennial0.6 -  LMHSNDM212
Artemisia laciniataSiberian wormwoodPerennial0.0 0-0  LMHSNDM10 
Artemisia lactifloraWhite MugwortPerennial1.5 4-8 SLMHSNM02 
Artemisia lancea Perennial1.2 -  LMHSNDM11 
Artemisia ludovicianaWhite Sage, Louisiana Sage, Prairie Sage, Western MugwortPerennial1.0 4-9 MLMSNDM222
Artemisia ludoviciana gnaphalodesWhite SagePerennial1.0 4-8  LMSNDM021
Artemisia maritimaSea WormwoodShrub0.6 6-9  LMNDM121
Artemisia mexicanaMexican White SagebrushPerennial1.0 -  LMNDM01 
Artemisia michauxianaMountain Sagewort, Michaux's wormwoodPerennial0.5 3-7  LMSNDM11 
Artemisia monophylla Perennial1.0 -  LMHSNDM10 
Artemisia montana Perennial1.8 -  LMHSNDM10 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References


Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

   Sat Feb 5 21:15:07 2005

Link: Coordinamento UTOPIA Ecologica Artemisia annua

Ruslan Morris   Wed Mar 16 14:31:43 2005

Link: Action for Natural Medicine

DR. A.R. POPOOla   Thu Feb 23 2006

I will like to try my hand on the cultivation of this plant. Can I get a lead? Will you provide me with seeds? A.R. Popoola, Nigeria.

UMEYSH BHASIN   Sun Mar 5 2006

we can provide the necessary details. please contact . best regards UMEYSH BHASIN AUM HEALTHCARE B-29/4,D.S., RAMESH NAGAR, NEW DELHI-110015 PHONES 51446764/25435027/25934201 FAX 51446564 MOBILE 98 110 46672 E-MAIL:[email protected]

   Sun Aug 13 2006

i am based at Gujarat India. i am associates with many farmers in my area & we all want to cultivate Artemisia annua in our region. I am appreciate if any one who have info about cultivation of artemisia annua (like source of availability of plantation, market,& all others) in Gujarat india. Is it possible to grow sufficiently high artemisinin yielding varieties in Gujarat, India? tushar velani 09825572553 [email protected]

sola daniel   Sat Oct 14 2006

I'm a fresh graduate of uni. of Lagos, Nigeria.Love to do a research on this plant.

   Tue Nov 14 2006

I am an Agronomist in Nigeria. How can i obtain the seed of this plant. I wish to be a grower. Akintola

James Thomas   Mon Dec 11 2006

how can I get seeds to try to grow them here in the United States in Florida?

Ken Fern, Plants for a Future.   Sun Dec 17 2006

For a North American seed supplier of this plant, visit http://www.jlhudsonseeds.com/index.htm.

Tony Kurian   Fri Feb 2 2007

I am doing Masters in Science at Ahmednagar College, Ahmednagar, India. I am so impressed by this plant & Artemisinin, that I have done a term paper on Artemisinin & have presented many seminars on this topic. This is a very fascinating plant & the action of artemisinin is more fascinating than this. I would like to cultivate this piant to eradicate Malaria from India.

malaria meds   Sat Apr 14 2007

we are an ngo in south sudan, along with medical care, we want to provide the plants for people to grow in their gardens as a home cure for malaria. We need technical assistance and plant stock. Please email thoughts to [email protected]

anonomous   Fri May 18 2007

can you tell me where the artemisia annua is found? And also what part of the plant is used to make the medicine? Thank you

anonomous   Sun May 20 2007

how is the artemisia annua prepared into being a malaria medicine?

Terry Aveling   Wed May 23 2007

Does someone have a list of plant diseases (fungal, bacterial, viral, insects too, etc) of Artemesia. I am especially interested in the seedborne diseases of this plant.

Fr.Thomas Puthenthayil   Fri Jul 6 2007

Fr.Thomas Puthenthayil i am intersted in helping people especialy the poor villagers who has very less money and education to reach the Alopatic hospitals even in danger of death. Really I am impressed of this plant, but i wish to know how can I teach the Self Help Group members fight malaria through this plant? Chhatrapur district in Madhya Pradesh, india

Dr. Rebecca Nalubega   Wed Jul 18 2007

I'm a postgraduate of Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.I would Like to do veterinary related research on this plant but i have no funding.Who can help me?

Fredrick Francis Mbwana   Thu Jul 26 2007

I am the one who deal with artemisia plantation in Tanzania.But I am looking for the more people who can help me.

Persephone   Fri Jul 27 2007

Seeds are available from www.richters.com They are located in Canada, but ship all over the world. One word of caution about Sweet Annie, she reseeds herself quite vigorously, and her seeds can remain dormant in the soil for many many years, forever popping up in the garden.

Sujeet Kumar Mishra   Fri Nov 23 2007

Dear Sir/madam, My name is Sujeet Kumar mishra.I'm an M.Pharma student currently undergoing project on hairy root induction of Artemisia annua.Can you please help me to getthe listsof manufacturers cultivating this plant as ineed its seeds&market formy project.Its very urgent i.e.by Dec 10th,2007.

P K Srivastava   Sat Dec 8 2007

ican provide you list of cultivaters of artemesia

D G. Lakshmana Rao   Sun Dec 23 2007

I am Dr G. L. Rao, a Consultant Herbalist in Hyderabad, India. I am interested in growing and processing artemisia annua. Can someone supply me an ounce of seeds? What will be the cost?

Koos Richards   Fri Dec 28 2007

We are an agricultural developing company and is very much interested in the cukltivation and processing of the plant. Where can we get hold of Institutions or people/companies who are Prepared to share information with us or even finance researcvh projects like this?

   Thu Jan 24 2008

Am interseted in growing it.Am a farmer in mid western Uganda.I will be grateful if you connected me on how to proceed. ROBERT RUKAHEMURA 256 772 360 167 256 752 360 167 EMAIL;[email protected]

Naveen Kumar Singh   Wed Feb 6 2008

Myself is Naveen doing my research in university of hyderabad.I want to know about the diseases of Artemisia annua.I have seen that same question has been asked by Terry Aveling. So can you provide the list of diseases?

Fuchs Renja   Mon Feb 11 2008

i stay for 1 the next time in uganda mukono and we try to plant the plant artemisia annuna anamed. but bevore i need som informationes. where i kan buy the sam of this plant? whats the price of this sams? kan you give mi a ancer? thank you veri muche for your work (weebale nnyo) renja

nisha   Mon Feb 11 2008

i need viable seed of artemisia annua. can i get some seed seller address to buy seeds. very urgent.

Dr Rupi Vij   Wed Mar 12 2008

To whom it may concern I am looking for the seeds of artemisia apiacea, can you suggest any suppliers for the Japanese and the Chinese varieties

Joseph Omondi Muchura   Tue May 13 2008

Am just getting into the field of artemisia annua this page has had very useful and interesting comments

Dr G. Lakshmana Rao   Fri Jul 11 2008

Can any one supply artemisia annua seeds in India? I need to grow them in India for medicinal use. [email protected]

Arvind   Wed Jul 16 2008

Mr. P.K. Srivastava (or anybody else), could you please provide the list of the cultivators and sources of Artemisia in India. Please forward your information. We are looking into growing it in the Hyderabad region. Would you happen to have a variety that would grow better in that kind of environment; semi-arid? thank you

akhilesh kumar   Mon Aug 25 2008

i want to grow artemisia annua on my land which is situated in Nalanda district, Bihar. but i am not aware about its cultivation practices. i also want to obtain quality planting material. agronomist`s advices are welcome. this is special request for those people who are already involved in the production of artemisia annua. your suggestions will be heartly welcomed. contact address e mail- [email protected] mobile no.- 09336582461

Angus   Sat Nov 1 2008

Hi im located in Brasil, Acre. I would like a source to buy seeds of this plant. Please contact me if you have this informmation! Thank-you. Oi im localizado no Brasil, Acre. Gostaria de comprar uma fonte de sementes desta planta. Entre em contato comigo se tiver essa informmation! Obrigado. Meu email is: angurio (at) gmail (point) com

Johannes Maier   Thu Dec 11 2008

Website of the NGO Anamed International Action for Natural Medicine in the Tropics seeds, literature in different languages, tea use against Malaria,AIDS, certain cancers

Obasse Emmanuel   Tue Dec 23 2008

I am a student university of calabar Nigeria, i am carring out a research on how the oil yield in artemisia annua can be increased.

Mahmud Nuhu   Mon Apr 20 2009

i know of this plant in Nigeria my grand mother gives us to take whenever any one has fever she mix it with lemon ,and believe me in 5 minutes you will vomit a greenish substance and be relieve of the fever. i am presently planing how to go into its cultivation in large quantity but in ineed information on buyers and posswible value addition technics before export my email is [email protected] my contact number is 234-083-4516145

yobes Makori Matino   Tue Apr 28 2009

I am interested in cultivating this important crop.Can you assist how to grow and also thelist of manufacturers and its global market. i can be contacted through +254 722590309, +254 734 537158

Dr. Biswajit Ghosh   Wed Aug 12 2009

I am Dr. Biswajit Ghosh of RKMVC College Rahara, Kolkata- 700118, India,. I am interested for tissue culture research on this species. Can someone supply me few seeds (50-100), in any forms either as gift or though purchase? My mail : [email protected]

RATAN TELEM   Wed Sep 9 2009

I am a PG student at University Of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru India.I would like to know in which part of INDIA it has start growing and what is the exact origin of this crop?

RHS   Wed Nov 4 2009

We have approximately 900 # of Artemisia Annua (cultivated in the US)in powder form for for sale @ $9.00 per pound ( minimum 50#).

CG GEBHART   Fri Nov 27 2009

RHS: How can someone contact you on the $9.00 per pound seed???


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Subject : Artemisia annua  
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