Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. The Project is directed at enabling designers of ‘carbon farms’ and ‘food forests’: agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. More >>>

Follow Us:

 

Populus nigra - L.

Common Name Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar
Family Salicaceae
USDA hardiness 3-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Moist ground in woods and by streams[9, 17].
Range Central and southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean, temperate Asia to the Himalayas.
Edibility Rating    (1 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun
Populus nigra Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Koeh-112.jpg
Populus nigra Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar

 

Translate this page:

Summary

Bloom Color: Red. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Columnar.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Populus nigra is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in June. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Inner bark
Edible Uses:

Inner bark - dried, ground then added to flour and used for making bread etc[2]. A famine food, used when all else fails[177].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Alterative  Anodyne  Antiinflammatory  Astringent  Diaphoretic  Diuretic  Expectorant  Febrifuge  
Salve  Stimulant  Tonic  Vulnerary

The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste[4, 213]. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body[213]. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, salve, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary[4, 9, 21, 165, 238]. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections, stomach and kidney disorders[4, 238]. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to aspirin[238]. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain and dry skin conditions[238]. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages[213]. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use[238]. The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic and tonic[14, 46, 61, 178, 218]. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived[238]. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps[14, 46, 61, 178, 213, 238]. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains[238]. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use[238].

Our new book Edible Shrubs is now available.

Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil.

Read More

Edible Shrubs Book

Other Uses

Cork  Rooting hormone  Shelterbelt  Wood

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day[172]. A fast growing tree, it is often used to provide a quick screen or windbreak[200]. The cultivar 'Italica' is commonly used for this purpose though it is not a very suitable choice because it has fragile branches and is prone to basal rots which can cause sudden collapse[200]. The cultivar 'Plantierensis' is much more suitable[200]. A resin obtained from the buds is made into a salve and used in home remedies[46]. The bark is used as a cork substitute for floats etc[115]. Wood - very soft, very light, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, easy to work, very resistant to abrasion. Used for lower quality purposes[11, 46, 61, 115, 227].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Carbon Farming  Food Forest  Scented Plants

Cultivation details

Agroforestry Services: Living trellis  Agroforestry Services: Windbreak  Fodder: Bank  Historic Crop  Industrial Crop: Biomass  Management: Coppice  Management: Standard  Other Systems: Irreg. Intercrop  Other Systems: SRC  Other Systems: Strip intercrop

A very easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil[1]. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain[11, 200]. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils[11]. It is fairly wind tolerant, though it does not do well in exposed upland sites, or in maritime exposure[11, K]. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition[200]. A fast-growing tree, reaching maturity in about 100 years and declining thereafter[186]. There are several named varieties that have been selected mainly for their ornamental value[11]. The leaf buds, as they swell in the spring, and the young leaves have a pleasing fragrance of balsam[245]. The fragrance is especially pronounced as the leaves unfold[245]. Very tolerant of hard pruning, the trees have often been pollarded in the past[186]. Plants seldom produce suckers[186]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly[30]. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building's foundations by drying out the soil[11]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features:Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Carbon Farming

  • Agroforestry Services: Living trellis  Plants to physically support other crops.
  • Agroforestry Services: Windbreak  Linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to enhance crop production, protect people and livestock and benefit soil and water conservation.
  • Fodder: Bank  Fodder banks are plantings of high-quality fodder species. Their goal is to maintain healthy productive animals. They can be utilized all year, but are designed to bridge the forage scarcity of annual dry seasons. Fodder bank plants are usually trees or shrubs, and often legumes. The relatively deep roots of these woody perennials allow them to reach soil nutrients and moisture not available to grasses and herbaceous plants.
  • Historic Crop  These crops were once cultivated but have been abandoned. The reasons for abandonment may include colonization, genocide, market pressures, the arrival of superior crops from elsewhere, and so forth.
  • Industrial Crop: Biomass  Three broad categories: bamboos, resprouting woody plants, and giant grasses. uses include: protein, materials (paper, building materials, fibers, biochar etc.), chemicals (biobased chemicals), energy - biofuels
  • Management: Coppice  Cut to the ground repeatedly - resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive management systems maintaining the soil organic carbon.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Other Systems: Irreg. Intercrop  Irregular intercropping systems are trees scattered throughout cropland.
  • Other Systems: SRC  Short-rotation coppice.
  • Other Systems: Strip intercrop  Tree crops grown in rows with alternating annual crops.

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:

Fahrenheit:

image

The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

Shop Now

Propagation

Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring[113]. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening[200]. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing[11]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 20 - 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy. Suckers in early spring[78]. This species rarely produces suckers[238].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Populus albaWhite PoplarTree20.0 3-9 FLMHNDM120
Populus angustifoliaNarrowleaf CottonwoodTree30.0 3-7 FLMHNM12 
Populus 'Balsam Spire'Tacatricho 32Tree30.0 4-8 FLMHNM03 
Populus balsamiferaBalsam Poplar, Black cottonwoodTree30.0 0-0 FLMHNM13 
Populus ciliataHimalayan PoplarTree20.0 - FLMHNM02 
Populus deltoidesEastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace PoplarTree30.0 3-9 FLMHNM220
Populus deltoides moniliferaPlains CottonwoodTree30.0 - FLMHNM12 
Populus deltoides wislizeniiRio Grande CottonwoodTree30.0 - FLMHNM21 
Populus euphratica Tree15.0 - FLMHNMWe01 
Populus fremontiiCottonwood, Fremont cottonwood, Fremont Poplar, Western CottonwoodTree25.0 2-9 FLMHNDM12 
Populus grandidentataCanadian Aspen, Bigtooth aspenTree20.0 2-5 FLMHNM11 
Populus heterophyllaSwamp CottonwoodTree25.0 - FLMHNM01 
Populus hybridsHybrid poplarTree50.0 2-10 FLMHSNDM334
Populus maximowicziiDoronoki, Japanese poplarTree30.0 4-8 FLMHNM01 
Populus pseudosimonii Tree20.0 -  LMHNM11 
Populus sieboldiiJapanese AspenTree20.0 4-8 FLMHNM11 
Populus simoniiSimon poplar, Chinese PoplarTree30.0 2-5 FLMHNM11 
Populus tremulaAspen Poplar, European aspen, AspenTree18.0 2-5 FLMHSNMWe12 
Populus tremuloidesAmerican Aspen - Poplar, Quaking aspenTree20.0 2-5 FLMHNDM13 
Populus trichocarpaWestern Balsam Poplar, Black cottonwoodTree40.0 4-8 FLMHNM13 
Populus x canadensisCanadian Poplar, Carolina PoplarTree40.0 4-9 FLMHNM01 
Populus x canescensGrey PoplarTree30.0 4-9 FLMHNM01 
Populus x jackiiBalm Of GileadTree30.0 - FLMHNM03 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

Print Friendly and PDF

Expert comment

Author

L.

Botanical References

1117200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

nadjet   Mon Apr 21 2008

je voudrai des articles scientifiques ayant tester les activité biologique du peuplier noir

QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.

2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.

3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Populus nigra  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Some information cannot be used for commercial reasons or be modified (but some can). Please view the copyright link for more information.
Web Design & Management