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Corylus cornuta - Marshall.

Common Name Beaked Hazel, California hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel
Family Betulaceae
USDA hardiness 4-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Dry or moist woodland on hills or mountain slopes[62]. Rich thickets, clearings and woodland edges[43].
Range Eastern and Central N. America.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Corylus cornuta Beaked Hazel, California hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel


Corylus cornuta Beaked Hazel, California hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel

 

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Summary

Form: Oval, Pyramidal.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Corylus cornuta is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

C. rostrata.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Oil  Seed
Edible Uses: Oil

Seed - raw or cooked[2, 62, 101]. Very popular in America, the seed is sweet and well-flavoured with a thin shell[2, 85]. The seed can be dried and ground into a powder which is added to cereals and used in making bread, pies etc[85, 183]. The seed ripens in mid to late autumn and will probably need to be protected from squirrels[K]. When kept in a cool place, and not shelled, the seed should store for at least 12 months[K]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Cardiac  Odontalgic  Stomachic

An infusion of the branches and leaves has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and intestinal disorders[257]. A decoction of the bark has been given to children to alleviate teething pain[257].

Our new book Edible Shrubs is now available.

Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil.

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Edible Shrubs Book

Other Uses

Basketry  Dye  Oil  String

Young sucker shoots are used to make a rope[99]. The shoots are soaked in urine first, to make them more pliable[257]. A blue dye is obtained from the root or inner bark[99, 101]. The branches are used in basketry[160].

Special Uses

Food Forest

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Firewood, Specimen, Street tree. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, but is in general more productive of seeds when grown on soils of moderate fertility[11, 200]. It does less well in rich heavy soils or poor ones[11, 63]. Does well in a loamy soil[11]. Very suitable for an alkaline soil[11], but it dislikes very acid soils[17]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.8 to 7.5. Plants are fairly wind tolerant[1, 11]. Plants are hardy to about -30°c[160]. They thrive in a short growing season[160]. This species is occasionally cultivated for its edible seed in N. America[61] but is of no value in Britain as a seed bearer[11]. Plants can bear fruit in 5 - 6 years from seed[160]. Members of this genus bear transplanting well and can be easily moved even when relatively large[11]. Special Features:Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 7 through 5. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. A clumping plant, forming a colony from shoots away from the crown but with a limited spread [1-2]. The root pattern is suckering with new plants from underground runners away from the plant [1-2].

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The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

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Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is harvested in autumn in a cold frame[164]. Germinates in late winter or spring. Stored seed should be pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and then given 2 weeks warm followed by 3 - 4 months cold stratification[164]. Germinates in 1 - 6 months at 20°c[164]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or sheltered place outdoors for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer[K]. Layering in autumn. Easy, it takes about 6 months[78, 200]. Division of suckers in early spring. Very easy, they can be planted out straight into their permanent positions.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Australia, Canada, North America, USA,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Corylus americanaAmerican HazelTree3.0 4-8  LMHSNM312
Corylus avellanaCommon Hazel, Common filbert, European Filbert, Harry Lauder's Walking Stick, Corkscrew Hazel, HazelTree6.0 4-8 MLMHSNM525
Corylus avellana pontica Tree0.0 -  LMHSNM40 
Corylus chinensisChinese HazelTree24.0 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Corylus colurnaTurkish Hazel, Chinese hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish HazelTree20.0 4-7 SLMHSNM313
Corylus cornuta californicaCalifornia HazelShrub8.0 4-8  LMHSNM304
Corylus fargesii Tree15.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Corylus feroxHimalayan Hazel, Tibetan hazelnutTree10.0 7-10  LMHSNM20 
Corylus heterophyllaSiberian FilbertTree7.0 4-8  LMHSNM314
Corylus hybrids & neohybridsHybrid & Neohybrids, Hazel, FilbertShrub25.0 4-9 MLMHSNM525
Corylus jacquemontiiIndian Tree HazelTree25.0 6-9  LMHSNM30 
Corylus maximaFilbert, Giant filbertShrub6.0 4-8  LMHSNM505
Corylus sieboldianaJapanese Hazel, Manchurian hazelShrub5.0 5-9  LMHSNM301
Corylus sieboldiana mandschuricaHairy hazel, Japanese hazelnut,Shrub4.5 5-9  LMHSNM301
Corylus tibetica Tree15.0 6-9  LMHSNM20 
Corylus x colurnoidesTrazelTree0.0 0-0  LMHSNM300
Corylus x vilmoriniiChinese TrazelTree25.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 

 

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Author

Marshall.

Botanical References

1143200

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