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Epilobium angustifolium - L.

Common Name Willow Herb
Family Onagraceae
USDA hardiness 3-7
Known Hazards An infusion of the leaves is said to stupefy a person[4].
Habitats Rocky ground, waste areas, woodland edges and gardens[7, 13].
Range Europe, including Britain, temperate Asia and N. America.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Epilobium angustifolium Willow Herb

Epilobium angustifolium Willow Herb


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Epilobium angustifolium is a PERENNIAL growing to 2 m (6ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Chamaenerion angustifolium.

Plant Habitats

Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Meadow;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Leaves  Root  Shoots  Stem
Edible Uses: Tea

Leaves and young shoot tips - raw or cooked[2, 5, 12, 62, 172, 183]. They can be used in salads or cooked as a vegetable[9]. When boiled they make a wholesome vegetable and are a good source of vitamins A and C[2, 257]. Only use the leaves when they are young[85]. Although they are said to be edible, another report says that an infusion of them can stupefy[4]. Young shoots - cooked. They make a good asparagus substitute[2, 9, 183, 213]. Root - raw, cooked or dried and ground into a powder[74, 172]. Used in spring, it has a sweet taste[12, 74]. Flower stalks - raw or cooked[85, 106, 172, 183]. Added to salads, they are used when the flowers are in bud[183]. The pith of young or older stems - raw or cooked[62, 99, 183]. Slightly sweet, tender and pleasing to eat, though there is not much of it[85, 172]. Gelatinous[161], it can be used as a flavouring in soups[183]. The stems are said to be a good laxative, but are best not eaten on an empty stomach[256]. A tea is made from the dried leaves[9, 62, 85, 94, 183], it is sweet and pleasant[172]. Called 'kaporie' tea in Russia, it contains 10% tannin[222]. The leaves are also used as an adulterant of China tea[2].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiinflammatory  Antispasmodic  Astringent  Demulcent  Dysentery  Emollient  Hypnotic  Laxative  
Poultice  Tonic

Willow herb is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, though it is little used in conventional herbalism. The herb is antispasmodic, astringent, demulcent, emollient, hypnotic, laxative and tonic[4, 7, 172, 192]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, mucous colitis and irritable bowel syndrome[254]. The plant is used in Germany and Austria to treat prostate problems[254]. A poultice of the leaves is applied to mouth ulcers[222]. An extract of the leaves has anti-inflammatory activity[222]. An ointment made from the leaves has been used to soothe skin problems in children[254]. A tea made from the leaves and roots is a folk remedy for dysentery and abdominal cramps[222]. A poultice made from the peeled roots is applied to burns, skin sores, swellings, boils etc[222, 257].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Fibre  Stuffing  Tinder  Weather protection

A fibre obtained from the outer stems is used to make cordage[99, 207, 256]. The 'cottony' seed hairs are used as a stuffing material[99, 118] or as a tinder[106, 172]. The powdered inner cortex is applied to the hands and face to give protection from the cold[99, 172, 257].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

An easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained but moisture retentive soil in a sunny position[200], though it succeeds in most soils[1]. It prefers a moist soil[111], but also succeeds on dry banks[188]. It is best grown in open woodland[1]. Plants are hardy to at least -20°c[187]. The rosebay willowherb spreads vigorously by means of a creeping rhizome, and often forms large patches[187]. It is apt to become a weed especially through its seed which is very light and capable of travelling long distances in the wind. It is often one of the first plants to colonize disturbed areas such as scenes of fires[1, 200]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is the floral emblem of the Yukon[172]. A food plant for the caterpillars of several lepidoptera species[24], it is also a good bee plant[74, 94]. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 7 through 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a clumper with limited spread [1-2]. The root pattern is fibrous dividing into a large number of fine roots [1-2]. The root pattern is rhizomatous with underground stems sending roots and shoots along their length [1-2].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

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Plant Propagation

Seed - sow early spring in situ or as soon as the seed is ripe[111]. This plant is more than capable of finding its own way into most gardens and does not usually require an invitation. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Rose bay, Fireweed, Willow Herb, Great willowherb, French willow, Almaruat, Kaporuski, Vrbolika,

TEMPERATE ASIA: Amur, Armenia, China, Gansu Sheng, Hebei Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Hokkaidô, Honshu (north), Irkutsk, Japan, Jilin Sheng, Kamcatskij kraj, Kurganskaja oblast, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Ningxia Huizi Zizhiqu, Qinghai Sheng, Russian Federation, Russian Federation, Sakhalin, Shanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Tomsk, Turkey, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, Xizang Zizhiqu (north & east), Yakutia-Sakha, Yunnan Sheng (northwest),Afghanistan. TROPICAL ASIA: India (north), Pakistan, NORTHERN AMERICA: Canada, Northwest Territories, Yukon, Québec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, United States, Minnesota (n, Colorado, Montana, Washington, Wyoming, Greenland, United States, Alaska, EUROPE: Faroe Islands, Sweden, Austria, Netherlands, Bulgaria, Italy, Portugal,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Epilobium angustifolium (Great Willow Herb) Status: Least Concern

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Epilobium coloratumPurpleleaf willowherbPerennial0.8 0-0  LMHSNM10 
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Epilobium hirsutumCodlins And CreamPerennial2.0 0-0  LMHNM212
Epilobium latifoliumRiver BeautyPerennial0.4 4-8  LMHSNM321
Epilobium macranthum  0.0 -  LMHSNM11 
Epilobium palustreMarsh Willow HerbPerennial0.4 -  LMHSNM10 
Epilobium parviflorumCodlins And Cream, Smallflower hairy willowherbPerennial0.6 0-0  LMHNMWe20 
Epilobium pyrricholophum Perennial0.8 -  LMHSNM10 
Epilobium tetragonumSquare-Stemmed Willow HerbPerennial0.6 -  LMHSNM10 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References


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Readers comment

Alexander Proot   Sat Dec 29 2007

I believe it's important to add the other comon scientific name of this plant: Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub

   May 24 2012 12:00AM

This plant *cured* me of prostate pain. It is better than saw palmetto, which only treats the symptoms.

   May 24 2012 12:00AM

Epilobium parviflorum is the exact species (its still willow herb!) I used. It's a VERY effective cure. Although its a special use, its great for that use... I'd put the medicinal rating at 5.

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