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Eucalyptus urophylla - S.T.Blake

Common Name Timor White Gum
Family Myrtaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[269 ]. In large doses, oil of eucalyptus, like so many essential oils has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation[269 ]. Death is reported from ingestion of 4 - 24 ml of essential oils, but recoveries are also reported for the same amount[269 ]. Symptoms include gastroenteric burning and irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, oxygen deficiency, ,weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult respiration, delirium, paralysis, convulsions, and death, usually due to respiratory failure[269 ].
Habitats Frequently occurs as the dominant species in open, often secondary montane forests, where it grows on mountain slopes and in valleys[303 ].
Range Southeast Asia - Indonesia.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Full sun
Eucalyptus urophylla Timor White Gum


wikimedia.org Colin Trainor
Eucalyptus urophylla Timor White Gum
wikimedia.org Colin Trainor

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Eucalyptus urophylla is an evergreen Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. The flowers are pollinated by Insects, Birds. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

No synonyms are recorded for this name.

Habitats

Edible Uses

None known

References

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

References

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Other Uses

Agroforestry Uses: The species is useful in protecting river banks and for providing shade[325 ]. Because it has no major soil requirements, it is increasingly being used in reforestation programmes, both in flooded soils and in dry soils in tropical lowlands[303 , 325 ]. Other Uses: The bark has a tannin content of over 10%, but it is not used commercially[303 ]. The leaves yield a pale yellow oil. The major components of the oil are paecymene (76%), alpha-pinene (7%) and gamma terpenene (4%). The essential oil is a good source of paracymene, which possesses disinfectant properties and is utilized in soapmaking and in the perfumery industry[303 ]. The heartwood is pinkish-brown to red-brown, and contains little gum[310 ]. It is moderately durable, comparatively light compared to other Eucalypts, fairly easy to saw[310 ]. It is used in heavy construction, bridging, flooring and framing. The round wood is used for building poles and fence posts[303 ]. It is particularly suitable as a source of mid-density to low-density eucalypt fibre for pulp and paper production[303 ]. It makes satisfactory fuel wood and charcoal[303 ]. It has been used to produce hybrid species as it appears to be insect-resistant, including a timber with a trade name of "Lyptus", hybridised with Eucalyptus grandis, commonly known as the rose gum or flooded gum.

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Biomass  Management: Coppice  Management: Standard  Minor Global Crop  Other Systems: SRC

A plant of humid and sub-humid tropical areas, where it is found at elevations from sea level up to 3,000 metres[303 ]. It is found in areas with a mean annual temperature of 24 - 28?c and a mean annual rainfall of 700 - 2,500 mm[303 ]. In its natural range the rainfall is monsoonal with 2 - 8 dry months per year[325 ]. Develops best on deep, moist, well-drained, acidic or neutral soils derived from volcanic or metamorphic rock[303 ]. It is also commonly found on basalt, schist and slates, but rarely on limestone[303 ]. It tolerates poor soils as long as the texture is loose[325 ]. A fast-growing tree, especially when young. Trees in one planting had reached an average height of 27 metres when 8 years old[310 ]. Flowering usually starts within 2 years from planting[303 ], and good seed production starts around the age of 4 years[310 ].. The tree has good coppicing ability and can be expected to produce at least 3 coppice rotations after the initial seedling rotation[303 ]. Eucalyptus species have not adopted a deciduous habit and continue to grow until it is too cold for them to do so. This makes them more susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. A deep mulch around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees to survive cold conditions. The members of this genus are remarkably adaptable however, there can be a dramatic increase in the hardiness of subsequent generations from the seed of survivors growing in temperate zones[200 ]. Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[200 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Biomass  Three broad categories: bamboos, resprouting woody plants, and giant grasses. uses include: protein, materials (paper, building materials, fibers, biochar etc.), chemicals (biobased chemicals), energy - biofuels
  • Management: Coppice  Cut to the ground repeatedly - resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive management systems maintaining the soil organic carbon.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Minor Global Crop  These crops are already grown or traded around the world, but on a smaller scale than the global perennial staple and industrial crops, The annual value of a minor global crop is under $1 billion US. Examples include shea, carob, Brazil nuts and fibers such as ramie and sisal.
  • Other Systems: SRC  Short-rotation coppice.

References

Temperature Converter

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Propagation

Propagation Seed - surface sow in a sunny position and make sure the compost is not allowed to dry out[11 , 78 , 134 ]. Species that come from high altitudes appreciate 6 - 8 weeks cold stratification at 2?c[200 ]. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as the second set of seed leaves has developed, if left longer than this they might not move well[200 ]. The seedlings are ready for planting in the field when they are 25 - 30 cm tall, usually after 10 - 12 weeks[310 ]. The seed has a long viability[200 ]. Rooted cuttings derived from stump sprouts are also used in raising E. Urophylla. After coppicing, when the new sprouts are 60 - 80 cm long, they are removed and divided into cuttings with 2 pairs of leaves[303 ]. In Indonesia, tissue culture has proved successful on an experimental scale[303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Lyptus

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Timor-Leste; Indonesia

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
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Eucalyptus cocciferaMt. Wellington PeppermintTree15.0 7-10 FLMHNDMWe00 
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Eucalyptus dumosaWater MalleeTree7.0 9-11 FLMHNDMWe10 
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Eucalyptus grandisFlooded Gum, Gum, Rose EucalyptusTree50.0 9-11 FLMHSNDM024
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Eucalyptus johnstoniiYellow Gum, Johnston's gumTree60.0 7-10 FLMHNDMWe00 
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Eucalyptus leucoxylonYellow Gum, White ironbark, White EucalyptusTree15.0 10-11 FLMHNDMWe10 
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Eucalyptus pauciflora niphophilaSnow GumTree6.0 6-9 FLMHNDMWe03 
Eucalyptus perrinianaSpinning GumTree6.0 7-10 FLMHNDMWe00 
Eucalyptus piperitaSydney PeppermintTree18.0 9-11 FLMHNDMWe02 
Eucalyptus polybracteaBlue MalleeTree6.0 - FLMHNDMWe13 
Eucalyptus punctataGrey GumTree30.0 8-11 FLMHNDMWe10 
Eucalyptus racemosaSnappy GumTree0.0 - FLMHNDMWe03 
Eucalyptus regnansMountain AshTree75.0 8-11 FLMHNDMWe00 
Eucalyptus robustaSwamp Mahogany, Eucalyptus GumTree30.0 8-12 FLMHSNDM034
12

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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S.T.Blake

Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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