Now available: PLANTS FOR YOUR FOOD FOREST: an important new book from PFAF. It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, including carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield. The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth. More >>>

Follow Us:

 

Erythronium americanum - Ker-Gawl.

Common Name Trout Lily, Dogtooth violet
Family Liliaceae
USDA hardiness 3-7
Known Hazards Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, the following notes have been seen for another member of this genus and so some caution is advised. Skin contact with the bulbs has been known to cause dermatitis in sensitive people[65].
Habitats Meadows and rich damp open woodland[4, 43].
Range Eastern N. America - New Brunswick to Florida, west to Ontario and Arkansas.
Edibility Rating    (4 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade
Erythronium americanum Trout Lily, Dogtooth violet


Erythronium americanum Trout Lily, Dogtooth violet
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Pan_krzy%C5%BC%C3%B3wka

 

Translate this page:

Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of bulb
Erythronium americanum is a BULB growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in).
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs).
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover; Lawn;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Flowers  Leaves  Root
Edible Uses:

Bulb - raw[106] or cooked[105, 177]. A crisp, chewy and very pleasant taste[183]. The bulb is up to 25mm long and is buried quite deeply in the soil[4]. Leaves - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Added to salads[183]. Eating the leaves will greatly reduce the vigour of the bulb, so can only be recommended in times of emergency[K]. Flowers, flower buds and flower stems - raw or cooked[183].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiscrophulatic  Contraceptive  Emetic  Emollient  Poultice

All parts of the plant, but especially the bulb and the fresh leaves, are strongly emetic and are not used internally[4]. The fresh leaves are also antiscrofulatic and emollient and are used as an infusion or stimulating poultice applied to swellings, tumours and scrofulous ulcers[4, 106, 254]. The juice from crushed leaves has been applied to wounds that are not healing[257]. A poultice of the crushed bulbs has been applied to swellings and to help remove splinters[257]. The raw plant, excluding the roots, has been used by native North American young girls to prevent conception[257].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

Now available: PLANTS FOR YOUR FOOD FOREST: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens.

An important new book from PFAF. It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, including carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield. The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth.

Read More

FOOD FOREST PLANTS

Other Uses

Plants spread freely by means of underground stems and make a delightful ground cover in dappled shade[257]. The plants are only in growth from late winter to late spring so the ground cover effect is ephemeral[K].

Special Uses

Food Forest  Ground cover

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Prefers slightly acid soil conditions but succeeds in chalky soils if these contain plenty of humus[164]. Requires semi-shade, preferably provided by trees or shrubs, and a well-drained soil[42, 164]. Succeeds in almost any light soil, preferring one that is rich in humus[1]. Nonflowering plants far outnumber flowering ones in most populations because of their extensive stolon production[270]. This species does not flower very freely, increasing mainly by its stoloniferous habit[164]. The flowers only open in warm sun[90]. When established in woodland, this species can spread very freely by means of underground roots[258]. Flowers are produced in 3 - 4 years from seed[164]. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 9 through 2. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a clumper with limited spread [1-2]. Ephemeral emerging in spring and dying back by summer every year [1-2]. The root pattern is stoloniferous rooting from creeping stems above the ground [1-2]. The root pattern is a corm swelling at the stem base [1-2].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:

Fahrenheit:

image

The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

Shop Now

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a shady position in a cold frame. Water lightly in summer, it should germinate in autumn or winter[164, 200]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification[164]. Sow as early in spring as possible in a cold frame. Sow the seed thinly so that it will not be necessary to prick them out for their first year of growth. Give an occasional liquid feed to the seedlings to make sure that they do not become nutrient deficient. When the plants are dormant, pot up the small bulbs putting 2 - 3 bulbs in each pot. Grow them on in a shady position in the greenhouse for another 2 3 years and then plant them out into their permanent positions when they are dormant in late summer. Division in summer as the leaves die down. This species does not produce offsets[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Erythronium albidumWhite Trout-Lily, White fawnlilyBulb0.1 4-8  LMSM30 
Erythronium albidum mesochoreumPrairie Trout LilyBulb0.1 4-8  LMSM30 
Erythronium californicumFawn Lily, California fawnlilyBulb0.3 0-0  LMSM20 
Erythronium citrinumPale Fawn Lily, Cream fawnlily, Roderick's fawnlilyBulb0.3 0-0  LMSM20 
Erythronium dens-canisDog's-Tooth VioletBulb0.2 3-7  LMSM30 
Erythronium grandiflorumAvalanche Lily, Yellow avalanche-lilyBulb0.2 4-8  LMSDM31 
Erythronium helenaeMt. St. Helena Fawm Lily, Pacific fawnlilyBulb0.3 4-8  LMSM20 
Erythronium hendersoniiHenderson's Fawn LilyBulb0.3 0-0  LMSM20 
Erythronium howelliiHowell's Fawn LilyBulb0.3 -  LMSM20 
Erythronium japonicumKatakuriBulb0.2 -  LMSM40 
Erythronium montanumAvelanche Lily, White avalanche-lilyBulb0.3 0-0  LMSM20 
Erythronium multiscapideumAdderstongueBulb0.3 -  LMSM20 
Erythronium oregonumGiant White FawnlilyBulb0.5 4-8  LMSM21 
Erythronium purpurascensAvelanche Lily, Purple fawnlilyBulb0.3 0-0  LMSM20 
Erythronium revolutumPink Fawn Lily, Mahogany fawnlilyBulb0.3 4-8  LMSM30 
Erythronium tuolumnenseTuolumne Fawn Lily, Dog's Tooth Violet, Pagoda LilyBulb0.3 4-9 MLMSM20 

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

Print Friendly and PDF

Expert comment

Author

Ker-Gawl.

Botanical References

43200

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Erythronium americanum  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Some information cannot be used for commercial reasons or be modified (but some can). Please view the copyright link for more information.
Web Design & Management