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Dipterocarpus grandiflorus - (Blanco) Blanco

Common Name Apitong
Family Dipterocarpaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats A relict species of the Pleistocene Sundaland, occurring in primary semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forest[338 ]. Lowland rainforests[307 ].
Range Southeast Asia - Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (3 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (0 of 5)
Care (info)
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Apitong

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Apitong
flickr.com loupok


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Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus is an evergreen Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a slow rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 10. The flowers are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Dipterocarpus blancoi Blume Dipterocarpus griffithii Miq. Dipterocarpus motleyanus Miq. Dipterocarpus pterygocalyx R.Scheffre Mocanera grandiflora Blanco

Plant Habitats

Edible Uses

None known

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

None known

References   More on Medicinal Uses

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Other Uses

Design: Botanic collection. Public open space. Agroforestry Uses: The tree is used in erosion control programmes. It minimizes soil erosion on slopes and therefore reduces the resultant sedimentation of streams, lakes, and reservoirs[303]. It also improves soil conditions through its fast rate of litter deposition and organic matter decomposition[303]. Other Uses: The wood yields large quantities of oleo-resin called balau or minyak keruing[303]. It is used locally as a coat for waterproofing paper, caulking baskets and boats, as a varnish for walls and furniture, in preparation of lithographic ink or, sometimes mixed with the bark of Melaleuca sp., for torches[303]. The resin is obtained by cutting a hole in the trunk near the base (about 90 - 150cm from the ground) and then dipping out the resin with a spoon as it collects there. To prolong the flow, a fire made from dead leaves or brushwood is made in the hole at intervals - this burns off the dried resinous film and allows the resin to flow again[64, 146]. A tannin-formaldehyde adhesive is produced from bark extracts[303]. The tree is a source of keruing timber[701]. We do not have specific information for this plant, but a general description of the wood is as follows:- The heartwood varies from light to dark red-brown or brown to dark brown, sometimes with a purple tint; it is usually well defined from the 5 - 7cm wide band of gray or buff sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse; grain straight or shallowly interlocked; lustre low; there is a strong resinous odour when freshly cut, it is without taste. The wood is moderately heavy to heavy; moderately hard; somewhat durable, being resistant to dry wood borers, fairly resistant to fungi but susceptible to termites, though silica content may be high, resistance to marine borers is erratic. It seasons slowly, with a high risk of checking and distortion; once dry it is poorly stable to moderately stable in service. Silica content is variable, generally less than 0.5%. The wood generally saws and machines well, particularly when green; blunting of cutters can be moderate to severe due to silica content, stellite-tipped and tungsten carbide tools are recommended; it is sometimes difficult to glue; resin adhering to machinery and tools may be troublesome and can also interfere with finishes; nailing and screwing are good, but require pre-boring; gluing is correct, but care is required because of the resin. The wood is used for general construction work, carpentry, panelling, joinery, framework for boats, flooring, pallets, chemical processing equipment, veneer and plywood, suggested for railroad crossties if treated[303, 316, 848]. The wood makes a good quality charcoal[303].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Management: Standard  Wild Crop

A plant of the lowland tropics where it grows at elevations up to 600 metres[303 ]. It is found in areas where the mean annual rainfall is in the range 900 - 4,000 mm, and the mean annual temperature is 24 - 28°c[303 ]. Often found on clay-rich soils in the wild[303 ]. Young plants need partial shade, older ones grow well in sunny positions[303 ]. Members of this genus generally only regenerate naturally in the shade of the forest. Seedlings and saplings can persist in dense forest shade for many years. In their first 2 years the young plants cannot tolerate major openings in the canopy, but after they are well established (about 120cm tall) the canopy can be opened up around them to speed up their growth[404 ]. The tree appears to flower and fruit annually in abundance and with more consistency than any of the other species of the family[303 ]. The fruit matures in 3 - 5 months[303 ]. Trees may begin to flower and bear good seeds before they are 30 years old[303 ]. It first flowers at an age ranging from 17 to 36 years[303 ]. The tree can make up the biggest forest cover component of watersheds. It can store much of the rainwater and regulates its flow on the slopes to streams, lakes, and reservoirs for the irrigation of food crops and the generation of electricity to provide energy for homes and industry[303 ]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200 ]. It is recommended to plant Paraserianthes falcataria as a source of mycorrhiza and as a shade tree, before transplanting the seedlings[303 ].

Carbon Farming

  • Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon  Materials, chemicals and energy include bioplastics, rubber, biomass products gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, butane, propane, biogas. Plants are usually resprouting plants and saps.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Wild Crop  Some wild plants have strong historical or contemporary use. Although they are not cultivated crops, they may be wild-managed.

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

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Plant Propagation

The seeds have a short viability of 3 - 5 days, and as such the seeds must be sown as soon as possible[303]. Tests have shown a germination rate of 56% and a survival percentage of seedlings of 22%[303]. Germinated seeds are often immediately put into plastic bags and kept under shade[303]. After 1 year the seedlings have reached about 50cm in height and can be planted out in the field[303]. Seeds of D. grandiflorus are generally collected on the ground after they fall because of the difficulty of climbing the tall trees[303]. The seeds can maintain their viability for 8 weeks when stored at 14°C in sealed plastic bags filled with nitrogen gas[303].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Critically Endangered A1cd+2cd

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Dipterocarpus alatusApitong, baume de gurjun, gurjun balsamTree30.0 10-12 SLMHSNM024
Dipterocarpus gracilisTagalog: PanaoTree50.0 10-12 MMHSNM013
Dipterocarpus kerriiKerr's KeruingTree40.0 10-12 MMHSNM023

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


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Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

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