We have recently published ‘Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions’: i.e. tropical and sub-tropical regions. We rely on regular donations to keep our free database going and help fund development of this and another book we are planning on food forest plants for Mediterranean climates. Please give what you can to keep PFAF properly funded. More >>>

Follow Us:


Aronia melanocarpa - (Michx.)Elliot.

Common Name Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia
Family Rosaceae
USDA hardiness 3-8
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Swamps and low woodlands, it is sometimes also found in drier soils[200, 235].
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Florida and Michigan.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Aronia melanocarpa Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia

Aronia melanocarpa Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia


Translate this page:


Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval.

Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of shrub
Aronia melanocarpa is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
See above for USDA hardiness. It is hardy to UK zone 4. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from October to December. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map


Plant Habitats

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit
Edible Uses: Pectin  Pectin

Fruit - cooked. A good flavour but very astringent[183]. The fruit should be fully ripe before being eaten and is best after a frost or two[K]. It makes a good jelly when sugar is added and is also dried and used for making pemmican[183]. The fruit is rich in pectin and can be added to fruits that are low in this substance when making jams etc[183]. Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation[201]. The fruit is about 9mm in diameter[200].

References   More on Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

An infusion of the berries has been used in the treatment of colds[257].

References   More on Medicinal Uses

The Bookshop: Edible Plant Books

Our Latest books on Perennial Plants For Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens in paperback or digital formats.

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Tropical Plants

Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.
Edible Temperate Plants

Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens.

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital media.
More Books

PFAF have eight books available in paperback and digital formats. Browse the shop for more information.

Shop Now

Other Uses

Miscellany  Pectin  Pectin

The fruit is a source of pectin[183], a substance that is used to thicken jams etc and as a culture medium in laboratories.

Special Uses

Food Forest

References   More on Other Uses

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Screen, Specimen. Prefers a moist peaty soil in full sun or partial shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils but dislikes shallow chalk[200]. More tolerant of dry soils than other members of this genus[200]. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. There is at least one cultivar developed for its improved fruit. 'Nero' has fruits twice the size of the species with a vitamin C content of 15 - 30 mg (per 100g?). The fruit is borne in clusters of about 15, it is more flavourful and the yield is about twice that of wild forms[183]. Other cultivars developed mainly for their ornamental value include 'Viking' with extra large berries and 'Aron' with numerous large berries[182]. The sub-species A. melanocarpa elata Rehd. and A. melanocarpa grandifolia (Lindl.)Schneid. are more vigorous than the type species with larger flowers and fruits[200]. This genus is closely related to Sorbus species[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attractive flowers or blooms. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 8 through 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. A clumping plant, forming a colony from shoots away from the crown but with a limited spread [1-2]. The root pattern is flat with shallow roots forming a plate near the soil surface [1-2]. The root pattern is suckering with new plants from underground runners away from the plant [1-2].

References   Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:



The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees,Edible Shrubs, Woodland Gardening, and Temperate Food Forest Plants. Our new book is Food Forest Plants For Hotter Conditions (Tropical and Sub-Tropical).

Shop Now

Plant Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in pots outdoors or in a cold frame[113]. Pre-soak stored seed overnight and then cold stratify for 3 months at 2°c[113]. The seed germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[134]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[113]. Division of suckers in the dormant season[200]. Very easy, they can be planted straight out into their permanent positions. Layering[200].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

NORTHERN AMERICA: Canada, Québec (south), Nova Scotia, Ontario (south), Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, United States, Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, Illinois, Iowa (northeast), Minnesota (east), Missouri (Stoddard Co.), Wisconsin, Alabama (north), Georgia (north), Kentucky, Maryland (west), North Carolina (west), South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Slovakia,

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Aronia arbutifoliaRed ChokeberryShrub3.0 4-9  LMHSNM200
Aronia prunifoliaPurple ChokeberryShrub3.0 4-8  LMHSNDM20 
x Sorbaronia hybridAronia x mountain ashTree3.0 3-8 MLMHNM302

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.


Expert comment



Botanical References

Links / References

For a list of references used on this page please go here

Readers comment

Jonathan Byron   Mon Dec 19 2005

The plant should be rated higher on the medicinal category. Aronia extracts have proven themselves useful as an antioxidant. They reduce inflammation induced by histamine and serotonin. The juice supports vascular/endothelial function, and appears to be a valuable adjunct or secondary therapy for people with heart disease, diabetes, and other conditions.

Birgir Norddahl   Sat May 27 2006

Please find the link below for one example of medicinal use (hypoglycemic effect) in diabetes patients - many more can be found.

NCBI PubMed (National Centre for Biotechnology Information)

SW   Sun Jun 11 2006

I suspect this is what is known as 'black rowan' in at least three countries; Russia, Lithuania and Czech Republic. A Lithuanian company makes a wine; 'Aronijos'. Website link shows a juicy picture of the berries.

Photos by Nikolay Palshin 2004 Picture: 'Black Rowan'

Michael   Fri Sep 15 2006

Hi, I'm really surprised that you don't know that this is one of the most powerful remedies for high blood pressure! Please, adjust your page. If you need any additional info please, write to me at [email protected]. Thanks, Michael.

David Everett   Tue Dec 26 2006

Aronia melanocarpa is an extraordinary medicine plant which has been developed in Poland. It has an incredible array of health qualities, and it deserves a far higher recognition. Last year Professor Iwona Wawer published a book all about it. Known as Chokeberry, the native Americans used it to prepare pemmican (dried meat). It has a higher concentration of vitamin C than blackcurrants, but it also contains a host of other valuable substances, especially antioxidants, polyphenols, bioflavonoids, and tannins. It is a very hardy and vigorous plant and can survive most conditions. The book is still difficult to obtain, even with the ISBN (83-923931-0-4). The printers are Nature's Print Ltd., Suite 4, 34 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 0RH (no phone no. given). If you still have difficulty, and want to know more, contact Polfrutz Company, 2 George St, Wellington TA21 8JA.

Carla   Mon Oct 29 2007

We received some sticks from Montana but have not had much luck in getting them to produce leaves or grow. In eastern Montana they grow along the drainage diches or hiway in poor conditions. I'd like to buy a plant but haven't been able to find any. Any ideas where I can find one?

Kitty Antonik Wakfer   Mon Mar 3 2008

This highly beneficial fruit is not getting sufficient attention - partly because websites such as this are terribly out of date regarding the results of peer reviewed studies. Just a very few: PMID: 15623784 Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis PMID: 16860979 Up-regulation of tumor suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells following repetitive exposure to dietary levels of a polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice. PMID: 17229985 Effects of novel plant antioxidants on platelet superoxide production and aggregation in atherosclerosis. PMID: 18044341 [Effect of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on blood pressure, concentration of endothelin-1 and lipids in patients with metabolic syndrome] PMID: 18231940 Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro. More can be found with search at PubMed.

PubMed Seach on aronia and particular effects

Val Gillespie   Sat Jan 26 2008

We planted a small beautiful 'autumn magic' chokeberry in the fall. That very night a rabbit bit off all the branches and ate them along with the leaves and berries! Very nutritious, I'd say!

Snowplow   Wed May 28 2008

See the Wikipedia entry for more information on the antioxidant goodness.

Wikipedia Chokeberry entry on Wikipedia

MARK ARGEBAND   Fri Jun 6 2008


David N   Fri Sep 5 2008

Re: rabbit eating Aronia, a mixture of egg-whites, milk and paint(fixing agent) keep rabbits off plants, I get commercial mixes from farm suppliers.

Lukas   Sun Nov 30 2008

HI I am a producer of high quality Aronia. If needed I can provide a large amounts of the fresh fruits to full fill your demand (season 2009- approximately 50 tonnes= 50 000 kilograms). Plantations are located in clear and healthy regions of EU. For more imformations please email me: [email protected]

   Sat Apr 18 2009

Hi , I m a producer of Aronia. welcome to www.aronija.com.hr

Dr. Eldon Everhart   Sun Sep 6 2009

The Aronia Festival will be held on September 19 & 20, 10 a.m.- 6 p.m. at Sawmill Hollow Organic Farm, 2159 Kennedy Avenue, in the Loess Hills north of Missouri Valley, Iowa. From Council Bluffs or Sioux City on Interstate 29, Exit 82 (Modale) then follow signs. This is the largest and oldest aronia plantation in the United States. Last year, the Aronia Festival attracted 700 people. I expect we will have over 1,000 this year. Public interest in aronia berries is growing rapidly in the United States. Many acres of aronia are being planted in the Midwest. Aronia may become the next big berry crop in the United States.

Sawmill Hollow Organic Farms

Cheryl   Wed Jan 13 2010

Any information about Midwest Aronia Association? Interested in networking with other growers.

Midwest Aronia Association Networking for growers and processors of aronia berries

   Jul 31 2011 12:00AM

Majestic plant in pot. Reproduces readily by cutting or seed.

Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Aronia melanocarpa  
© 2010, Plants For A Future. Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567.