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Pinus muricata - D.Don.

Common Name Bishop's Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 7-10
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Found in 7 scattered locations on exposed bluffs and headlands, often drenched by salt spray[11, 200].
Range South-western N. America - California.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care (info)
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Pinus muricata Bishop


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Pinus muricata Bishop

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus muricata is an evergreen Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from January to February. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Seed
Edible Uses: Condiment

Seed - raw or cooked[257]. They can be dried and stored for later use[257]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].

References

Medicinal Uses

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Antiseptic  Diuretic  Pectoral  Poultice  Vermifuge

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4].

References

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Other Uses

Adhesive  Dye  Herbicide  Shelterbelt  Waterproofing  Wood

A very fast growing tree, even in exposed maritime areas, it makes a very good shelterbelt[75, 200]. Trees in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall reached 10m in 29 years[75]. A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative, adhesive etc[257]. The roots have been used in making baskets[257]. Wood - heavy, coarse-grained, weak, usually containing a number of knots[229]. Of little value commercially[229], though it is occasionally manufactured into lumber[82].

Special Uses

References

Cultivation details

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Established plants tolerate drought[200] and are very resistant to maritime exposure[185]. Mature trees produce a broad heavy crown and are somewhat likely to be blown down in severe gales[200]. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to about -10°c[200]. It grows quickly on barren acidic sandy soils[81], with annual growths of 1.8 metres being recorded for young trees[185]. Trees from the northern provenances maintain rapid height growth for longer than trees from the southern provenances, but both remain vigorous in girth[185]. Trees grow larger in cultivation than they do in the wild[200]. The cones are about 8cm long, they remain on the tree and retain viable seed for up to 25 years, opening up and scattering the seed after a forest fire[11, 82]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].

References

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Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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D.Don.

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