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Malus baccata - (L.)Borkh.

Common Name Chinese Crab, Siberian crab apple
Family Rosaceae
USDA hardiness 2-7
Known Hazards All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Habitats Open forested areas to elevations of 1800 - 3600 metres[51, 272].
Range E. Asia - N. China to the Himalayas.
Edibility Rating    (2 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care (info)
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Malus baccata Chinese Crab, Siberian crab apple


http://morphbank4.sc.fsu.edu/
Malus baccata Chinese Crab, Siberian crab apple
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sten

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded, Spreading or horizontal.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Malus baccata is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Pyrus baccata.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[46, 105]. Fruit from the typical species is about 1cm in diameter, though there are sub-species and cultivated forms with considerably larger fruits[200]. A sour taste, but the fruit is palatable[2, K]. It is often dried for winter use[61] and also makes an excellent jelly[183].

References

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anodyne

A paste of the fruit is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches[272].

References

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Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil.

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Edible Shrubs Book

Other Uses

Rootstock

The plant can be used as a rootstock for apple cultivars. It produces a vigorous tree that has more cold tolerance and disease resistance[183]. It is commonly used as stock to graft Malus pumila and M. asiatica in N and NE China[266]. The sub-species M. baccata himalaica is more often used for this purpose. A dynamic accumulator gathering minerals or nutrients from the soil and storing them in a more bioavailable form - used as fertilizer or to improve mulch.

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Dynamic accumulator  Food Forest

References

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Border, Espalier, Pest tolerant, Standard, Specimen, Street tree. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most fertile soils including heavy ones[1, 98], preferring a moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil[200]. Prefers a sunny position but succeeds in partial shade though it fruits less well in such a situation[200]. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40°c[160]. The plants are very resistant to disease[34]. This species is cultivated for its edible fruit in China, there are several named varieties[22]. The sub-species M. baccata mandschurica. (Maxim.)Schneid. has slightly larger fruits which ripen earlier than the type[1, 200]. Trees can produce fruit in 4 years from seed[160]. A very ornamental tree[1], the fruit is a good wildlife food source, especially for birds[200]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Not North American native, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 7 through 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a standard with a non-suckering single trunk [1-2].

References

Temperature Converter

Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit:

Fahrenheit:

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The PFAF Bookshop

Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs.

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Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It usually germinates in late winter. Stored seed requires stratification for 3 months at 1°c and should be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is received[200]. It might not germinate for 12 months or more. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. If given a rich compost they usually grow away quickly and can be large enough to plant out in late summer, though consider giving them some protection from the cold in their first winter. Otherwise, keep them in pots in a cold frame and plant them out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of mature wood, November in a frame[11].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
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Malus baccata mandschuricaManchurian AppleTree7.0 0-0  LMHSNM402
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Malus domesticaAppleTree9.0 3-8  LMHSNM524
Malus florentinaHawthorn-leaf crab appleTree8.0 4-8  LMHSNMWe20 
Malus floribundaJapanese Crab, Japanese flowering crab appleTree10.0 4-7 MLMHSNM30 
Malus fuscaOregon Crab, Oregon crab appleTree12.0 5-9 SLMHSNM32 
Malus glabrata Tree5.0 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Malus glaucescens Tree5.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Malus hallianaHall crab appleTree4.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Malus halliana spontanea Tree4.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
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Malus ioensisPrairie Crab, Prairie crab apple, Texas crab apple, Prairie CrabappleTree5.0 3-8 SLMHSNM202
Malus ioensis palmeriPrairie CrabTree5.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Malus kansuensis Tree5.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Malus lancifolia Tree6.0 4-8  LMHSNM20 
Malus praecox Tree0.0 -  LMHSNM20 
Malus prattiiPratt appleTree10.0 5-9  LMHSNM20 
Malus prunifoliaChinese Apple, Plumleaf crab appleTree8.0 3-7  LMHSNM40 
Malus prunifolia rinkiiChinese AppleTree8.0 3-7  LMHSNM30 
Malus pumilaParadise Apple, Common Apple, Apple TreeTree7.0 3-9 MLMHSNM423
Malus pumila nervosaCrab AppleTree5.0 3-7  LMHSNM302
Malus pumila paradisiacaParadise AppleTree5.0 3-7  LMHSNM302
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12

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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Expert comment

Author

(L.)Borkh.

Botanical References

51200266

Links / References

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