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Eucalyptus grandis - W.Hill

Common Name Flooded Gum, Gum, Rose Eucalyptus
Family Myrtaceae
USDA hardiness 9-11
Known Hazards Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[ 269 ]. In large doses, oil of eucalyptus, like so many essential oils has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation[ 269 ]. Death is reported from ingestion of 4 - 24 ml of essential oils, but recoveries are also reported for the same amount[ 269 ]. Symptoms include gastroenteric burning and irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, oxygen deficiency, ,weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult respiration, delirium, paralysis, convulsions, and death, usually due to respiratory failure[ 269 ].
Habitats Tall, open forest in sheltered valleys and on hill slopes, often in pure or almost pure stands, sometimes in mixed forests. In the south of its range, it is found on flats and lower slopes of deep, fertile valleys and at the edge of rainforests[ 303 ].
Range Australia - New South Wales, Queensland.
Edibility Rating    (0 of 5)
Other Uses    (4 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (2 of 5)
Care
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Eucalyptus grandis Flooded Gum, Gum, Rose Eucalyptus


Peter Woodard wikimedia.org
Eucalyptus grandis Flooded Gum, Gum, Rose Eucalyptus
Tatiana Gerus wikimedia.org

 

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Summary

Eucalyptus grandis, commonly known as flooded gum or rose gum, is a tall tree about 50 m in height with a usually straight and cylindrical trunk and smooth powdery bark. The basal part of the bark is rough and fibrous or flaky. The leaves are dark green, glossy, and arranged alternately along the branches. The flowers are white and arranged in groups of seven to eleven flowerheads. Decoction of ground branch tips is taken for relief from constipation. The leaves yield essential oil which has larvicidal activity against mosquitos. The wood is moderately strong, moderately heavy and soft, moderately durable, and resistant to dry wood borers but susceptible to termites. It is ideal for fence posts, poles, boxes, boat building, flooring, plywood, and general construction among others. The tree is planted as windbreaks.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of cone
Eucalyptus grandis is an evergreen Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Insects. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


A decoction of ground branch tips is taken against constipation[ 299 ]. Euglobals from the leaves have shown anti-carcinogenic activityand inhibitory effects on Epstein Barr virus activation[ 299 ].

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Other Uses

Agroforestry Uses: The tree is planted in windbreaks[ 299 ]. Soya beans (Glycine max), interplanted with this tree as part of an agroforestry research project in southeastern Brazil, suppressed weeds without adversely affecting tree survival and growth[ 303 ]. Maize and sorghum have also been found compatible to grow with this plant[ 303 ]. When planted adjacent to avocado orchards, it reduces the yields by shading and competing unfavourably with the avocados for light, nutrients and water[ 303 ]. Other Uses: The leaves yield 0.3 - 4.7% essential oil, containing alpha-pinene (30.4 - 68.9%), beta-pinene (0.4 - 6.6%), p-cymene (up to 16.1%), terpinen-4-ol (up to 10.7%), 1,8-cineole (up to 4.8%), alpha-terpineol (0..5 - 8.0%), limonene (2.4 - 5.6%) and (E)-beta-ocimene (up to 9.4%). The essential oil has shown larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with alpha-pinene being the principal larvicidal component[ 299 ]. The colour of the heartwood ranges from almost white to pink or dark red; it is clearly demarcated from the 2 - 5cm wide band of paler sapwood. The grain is straight or interlocked; the texture medium to coarse; gum veins are common. The wood is moderately strong, moderately heavy and soft, being softer and lighter than that of many other eucalypts. It is moderately durable at best, being resistant to dry wood borers, somewhat resistant to fungi and susceptible to termites - untreated wood is not suitable for use in contact with the ground. The sapwood is generally resistant to Lyctus borers. It is somewhat difficult to dry, but checking can be avoided by careful control of the conditions during the early stages of drying. The wood is usually not very stable in service. The wood works well with machine and hand tools, but the surface may be woolly and the wood has a tendency to splinter. It saws cleanly, planes excellently and takes all kinds of finish well. Nail and screw holding properties are good, but the wood tends to split on nailing unless pre-bored. The gluing properties are good. The wood has been used for fence posts, building, transmission and telephone poles, boxes and hooks. It is especially used for boat building, flooring, plywood, panelling and general construction. It can also be used for sawn timber but has tendency to split[ 269 , 299 , 303 , 379 , 848 ]. It has been used as a source of pulp for making paper[ 303]. Large quantities of the wood are used for charcoal, for iron smelting, for example in Brazil. The firewood is used for domestic purposes and for curing tobacco[ 303 ]. The wood has an energy value of 18,100 - 19,400 kJ/kg[ 299 ].

Special Uses

Carbon Farming

Cultivation details

Global Crop  Industrial Crop: Biomass  Management: Coppice  Management: Standard  Other Systems: SRC

A plant of humid subtropical and tropical regions, it grows in areas with mean minimum temperatures during the coldest month ranging from 2 - 10c and mean maximums near 29c during the hottest month[ 303 ]. Rainfall averages 1,020 - 1,780mm, concentrated in the summer but with monthly precipitation during the dry season of at least 20mm[ 303 ]. Plants can experience occasional frosts in the high parts of its range[ 303 ]. So long as the temperature drops gradually over a period of days, the tree can tolerate frost of -3c, but rapid falls to that temperature can cause severe damage[ 303 ]. Requires a sunny position and a deep, free-draining soil, growing best on fertile loam or clay-loam soils, but it will also perform well on lighter sandy soils, provided these are deep enough[ 279 , 303 ]. A very fast-growing tree, height increase in young trees of 2m per year are common, with some trees averaging 4m for the first 10 years or more[ 279 , 299 ]. Trees respond well to coppicing[ 303 ]. When grown for pulpwood, fuel wood and timber for mining, a 6 - 10 year rotation is common. In most countries, no thinning is done on these short rotations[ 303 ]. For saw logs, a rotation of 30 years is recommended with thinning at ages 7, 11 and 15 years, leaving a final stocking of 250 stems/ha[ 303 ]. The use of boron to reduce die-back and improve the growth rate is essential[ 303 ]. For most types of products, one seedling rotation, followed by at least two coppice rotations, is common practice[ 303 ]. Trees normally produce a strong taproot, with few laterals[ 379 ]. Trees can commence flowering when 4 - 5 years old[ 299 ]. Under natural conditions, the tree bears heavy seed crops every 2 - 3 years[ 303 ]. A fully mature tree can produce 2 kg of seed annually[ 303 ]. This species often hybridizes with the closely related Eucalyptus saligna, from which it is distinguished most easily by the shape of the fruit valves[ 299 ]. Eucalyptus species have not adopted a deciduous habit and continue to grow until it is too cold for them to do so. This makes them more susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. A deep mulch around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees to survive cold conditions. The members of this genus are remarkably adaptable however, there can be a dramatic increase in the hardiness of subsequent generations from the seed of survivors growing in temperate zones[ 200 ]. Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[ 200 ]. Flowering Time: Early summer, Early spring, Late summer, Late spring, Mid summer, Mid spring. Color Bloom: White.

Carbon Farming

  • Global Crop  These crops are already grown or traded around the world. The annual value of each is more than $1 billion US Examples include coconuts, almonds, and bananas.
  • Industrial Crop: Biomass  Three broad categories: bamboos, resprouting woody plants, and giant grasses. uses include: protein, materials (paper, building materials, fibers, biochar etc.), chemicals (biobased chemicals), energy - biofuels
  • Management: Coppice  Cut to the ground repeatedly - resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive management systems maintaining the soil organic carbon.
  • Management: Standard  Plants grow to their standard height. Harvest fruit, seeds, or other products. Non-Destructive management systems.
  • Other Systems: SRC  Short-rotation coppice.

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Propagation

Seed - surface sow in a sunny position and make sure the compost is not allowed to dry out[ 11 , 78 , 134 ]. Species that come from high altitudes appreciate 6 - 8 weeks cold stratification at 2?c[ 200 ]. Germination takes 7 - 14 days[ 379 ]. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as the second set of seed leaves has developed, if left longer than this they might not move well. The seedlings are ready for planting in the field when they are 25 - 30 cm tall, usually after 3 - 5 months. The seed has a long viability[ 200 ]. Cuttings from tiny seedlings root readily, but rooting capability ceases before seedlings are 1 metre tall because of natural rooting inhibitors produced by adult leaves[ 279 ]. However, even in adult trees, cuttings from epicormic shoots, induced at the base of the tree by felling or girdling, retain the ability to root[ 279 ]. Coppice shoots from stumps have also been used for propagation[ 303 ].

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Flooded Gum, Gum, Rose Eucalyptus

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Australia

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed

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12

Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water.

 

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