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Celtis occidentalis - L.

Common Name Hackberry, Common hackberry
Family Ulmaceae
USDA hardiness 3-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Dry to moist and rich woods, river banks, rocky barrens etc[43]. Frequently found on limestone soils[229].
Range Eastern N. America - Quebec to Manitoba, North Carolina, Missouri and Oklahoma.
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (2 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (1 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun
Celtis occidentalis Hackberry, Common hackberry


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sten
Celtis occidentalis Hackberry, Common hackberry
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sten

 

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Summary

Bloom Color: Green. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded, Vase.


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Celtis occidentalis is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Garden Canopy;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit  Seed
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw[2, 3, 55, 149]. Very sweet and pleasant tasting, they can be eaten out of hand or can be used for making jellies, preserves etc[183]. The fruit is often produced abundantly in Britain, it is about the size of a blackcurrant, but there is very little flesh surrounding a large seed and it is therefore a very fiddly crop[K]. The fruit is dark orange to purple- or blue-black when fully ripe, usually about 7-11mm in diameter, though occasionally up to 20mm[270]. The flesh is dry and mealy but with a pleasant sweet taste[K]. Seed[57]. No more details. The fruit and seed can be ground up finely together and used as a flavouring[161, 183]. The N. American Indians ate them with parched corn[183].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Miscellany  VD

An extract obtained from the wood has been used in the treatment of jaundice[226]. A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of sore throats[257]. When combined with powdered shells it has been used to treat VD[257].

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Other Uses

Dye  Fuel  Miscellany  Shelterbelt  Wood

A dye is obtained from the roots[61]. No more details are given. Fairly wind-tolerant, it can be planted as part of a shelterbelt[200]. Wood - rather soft, weak, coarse-grained, heavy. It weighs 45lb per cubic foot and is sometimes used commercially for cheap furniture, veneer, fencing fuel etc[46, 61, 82, 171, 227].

Special Uses

Food Forest

Cultivation details

Landscape Uses:Firewood, Aggressive surface roots possible, Street tree, Woodland garden. Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil[1, 11, 200]. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils[200]. Tolerates alkaline soils[160]. Established plants are very drought resistant[149, 160, 200]. Wind resistant[160]. Trees transplant easily[226]. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, they often do not fully ripen their wood when growing in this country and they are then very subject to die-back in winter[1, 11, 200]. Plants in the wild are very variable in size, ranging from small shrubs to large trees[43]. They are fast-growing[98, 229], and can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years[200]. Only to 200 years according to another report[229]. They usually produce good crops of fruit annually[229]. Trees respond well to coppicing, readily sending up suckers after cutting or the top being killed off in a fire[226]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 9 through 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is a standard with a non-suckering single trunk [1-2]. The root pattern is a heart root, dividing from the crown into several primary roots going down and out [1-2].

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Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[200]. Stored seed is best given 2 - 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse[78, 200]. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years[113]. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer[K]. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameHabitHeightHardinessGrowthSoilShadeMoistureEdibleMedicinalOther
Celtis australisNettle Tree, European hackberryTree20.0 5-9 MLMNDM320
Celtis boninensis Tree0.0 -  LMNDM20 
Celtis bungeanaBunge's hackberryTree10.0 4-8  LMNDM20 
Celtis caucasicaCaucasian hackberryTree20.0 5-9  LMNDM20 
Celtis glycycarpa Tree0.0 -  LMNDM20 
Celtis jessoensis Tree15.0 5-9  LMNDM20 
Celtis koraiensis Tree12.0 4-8  LMNDM20 
Celtis laevigataSugarberry, Netleaf hackberry, Texan sugarberry, Sugar HackberryTree18.0 5-10 MLMHNDM213
Celtis laveillei Tree0.0 -  LMNDM20 
Celtis lindheimeriPalo Blanco, Lindheimer's hackberryTree10.0 0-0  LMNDM20 
Celtis pallidaDesert HackberryTree5.5 -  LMNDM20 
Celtis reticulataPaloblanco, Netleaf hackberryTree12.0 5-9 SLMNDM21 
Celtis sinensisChinese hackberryTree10.0 8-11 MLMNDM21 
Celtis tenuifoliaSmall Hackberry, Dwarf hackberryTree4.5 5-9  LMNDM20 
Celtis tetrandra Tree20.0 -  LMNDM21 
Celtis tournefortiiOriental hackberryTree8.0 6-9  LMNDM20 
Pteroceltis tatarinowii Tree10.0 4-8  LMHSNDM00 

 

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