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Angelica archangelica - L.

Common Name Angelica, Norwegian angelica
Family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
USDA hardiness 4-8
Known Hazards All members of this genus contain furocoumarins, which increase skin sensitivity to sunlight and may cause dermatitis[238].
Habitats Moist shady places in Britain[4, 14, 27, 37].
Range Europe. Naturalized in Britain[17].
Edibility Rating    (3 of 5)
Other Uses    (0 of 5)
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating    (3 of 5)
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Angelica archangelica Angelica, Norwegian angelica


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Angelica archangelica Angelica, Norwegian angelica
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Angelica_archangelica_001.JPG

 

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of flower
Angelica archangelica is a BIENNIAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 0.8 m (2ft 7in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Archangelica officinalis.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves  Root  Seed  Stem
Edible Uses: Condiment

Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 14, 27, 37, 52]. A liquorice-like flavour[183], they can be used as a flavouring in mixed salads[K]. They are also used to sweeten tart fruits[K]. Stalks and young shoots - cooked or raw[2, 37]. The stalks should be peeled[115], they can be used like celery[183]. They can also be used to sweeten tart fruits[52] and to make jam[244]. They are often crystallised in sugar and used as sweets and cake decorations[244]. The stems are best harvested in the spring[244]. An essential oil is obtained from the root and seeds, it is used as a food flavouring[46, 57, 100, 183]. Root - cooked[2]. Seed - used as a flavouring in liqueurs such as Chartreuse[244]. A tea can be made from the leaves, seed or roots[183].

Medicinal Uses

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Antispasmodic  Appetizer  Carminative  Diaphoretic  Diuretic  Expectorant  Stimulant  Stomachic  
Tonic

Angelica has a long folk-history of use as a medicinal herb, in particular for the treatment of digestive disorders and problems with blood circulation[4, 254]. The root is the most active medicinally, it should be harvested in the autumn of its first year of growth, sliced longitudinally if necessary and dried quickly[4]. If well stored, the root retains its medicinal virtues for many years[4]. The leaves and seeds can also be used[4]. The leaves are harvested and dried in late spring before the plant comes into flower[244]. The plant is antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic[4, 9, 14, 21, 46, 165]. An infusion is used to ease flatulence, indigestion, chronic bronchitis and typhus[244]. It stimulates blood flow to the peripheral parts of the body and so is of value in treating poor circulation - it is considered a specific treatment for Buerger's disease, a condition that narrows the arteries of the hands and feet[254]. Angelica is contra-indicated for people with a tendency towards diabetes since its use can increase sugar levels in the urine[4]. This plant should not be prescribed for pregnant women[238], nor should the juice be allowed to come into contact with the eyes[244]. An essential oil from the seeds is sometimes used as a rub to relieve rheumatic conditions[244]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Angelica archangelica fruit for fevers and colds, infection of the urinary tract, dyspeptic complaints and loss of appetite. The root has been approved for dyspeptic complaints and loss of appetite. (see [302] for critics of commission E). No health hazards or side-effects if the proper administration of therapeutic dosages. Avoid sunbathing and intensive UV radiation for the duration of a treatment [301].

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Other Uses

Essential

An essential oil from the root and seeds is used in perfumery, medicinally and as a food flavouring[4, 46, 57, 100]. The oil from the seeds has a musk-like aroma and is often used to flavour liqueurs[245]. The dried root contains 0.35% essential oil, the seed about 1.3%[240]. Yields of the essential oil vary according to location, plants growing at higher altitudes have higher yields with a better aroma[240].

Special Uses

Attracts Wildlife  Scented Plants

Cultivation details

Requires a deep moist fertile soil in dappled shade or full sun[52, 200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.3. A very hardy plant, tolerating severe frosts without damage[4]. Although by nature biennial, the plants are reliably perennial if they are prevented from setting seed[200]. Angelica is occasionally cultivated in the herb garden, mainly for its culinary uses[46]. The plants have a pervading aromatic odour[4]. The growing plant is almost untroubled by pests and diseases[4]. It attracts bees and hoverflies to the garden, helping to create a natural balance of insect pests and predators[24]. When well-sited, the plant will often self-sow - sometimes to the point of nuisance[245].

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Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe since the seed only has a short viability[200]. Seed can also be sown in the spring, though germination rates will be lower. It requires light for germination[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in the spring. The seed can also be sow in situ as soon as it is ripe.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

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