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type Botanical Name Common Name Edible Parts Notes E.T. Acacia longifolia Wattle Seed Very mild areas only, sunny position, light soil D.T. Acer glabrum Rock Maple Young shoots, inner bark Sunny position, moist well drained soil D.T. Acer saccharum Sugar Maple Sap - a sugar substitute Sunny position, deep moist soil Other species that yield maple syrup include: A. argutum, A. carpinifolium, A. distylum, A. grandidentatum, A. interius, A. macrophyllum, A. mono, A. nigrum, A. negundo, A. palmatum, A. platanoides, A. rubrum, A. pseudo-platanus, A. saccharinum and A. tataricum D.T. Acer tataricum Seed, sap Sunny position, moist well-drained soil D.T. Acer truncatum Seed Sunny position, moist well-drained soil D.CL. Actinidia arguta Fruit - very rich in Vitamin C, sap Very hardy. Good loamy soil. Dioecious D.CL. Actinidia chinensis Chinese Gooseberry, Kiwi Fruit Fruit - stores up to 4 months Good loamy soil. Dislikes lime. Sunny position. Dioecious Other species with edible fruit include A. callosa, A. giraldii, A. kolomikta, A. melanandra, A. polygama, A. purpurea and A. rubricaulis. Most are best in southern England though A. arguta comes from Siberia and would be very worthwhile trying further north D.T. Aesculus flava Sweet Buckeye Seed - as sweet as a chestnut Good deep soil. Best in south east England Other species include Ae. californica, Ae. hippocastanum, Ae. parviflora and Ae. indica. However, they all contain saponins and need to be leached before being eaten so are best avoided. Even Ae. flava should be viewed with some suspicion D.CL. Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata ) Akebia Fruit - not freely produced in Britain Partial shade. Probably self-sterile so more than one plant should be grown D.T. Albizzia julibrisin Leaves Mild areas only D.T. Alnus rubra Red Alder Sap, buds, inner bark Succeeds in heavy damp soils D.SH. Amelanchier canadensis Juneberry Fruit - sweet Most soils, sunny position The fruits of all members of this genus are edible, though sometimes dry and tasteless. The following are said to have desirable fruits. A. alnifolia, A. humilis, A. laevis, A. lamarckii, A. stolonifera D.CL. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Leaves and young stems Sunny position D.SH. Aralia chinensis Angelica Tree Young shoots Shady position, good deep loam D.T. Aralia spinosa Hercule's Club Young leaves Good deep loam E.T. Araularia araucana Monkey Puzzle Seed Deep soil. Very wind resistant. Dioecious E.T. Arbutus unedo Strawberry Tree Fruit Most soils. Wind resistant Other species with edible fruits include A. andrachne, A. menziesii E.SH. Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi Bearberry Fruit - carbohydrate source Lime-free soils Other species with edible fruits include A. columbiana, A. glauca, A. manzanita, A. nevadensis, A. patula and A. tomentosa D.SH. Arctous alpinus Fruit Lime-free soil. Cool, damp position E.SH. Aristotelia chilensis Macqui Fruit - tastes like Bilberries South and south-west Britain only D.T. Aristotelia serrata Fruit Moist, mild areas only D.SH. Aronia arbutifolia Red Currant Fruit Most soils E.SH. Artemesia tridentata Sage Brush Leaves, seed Sunny positon. Well-drained, lime-free, not rich soil D.SH. Asimina triloba Fruit Sunny position, rich loamy soil E.SH. Atriplex halimus Sea Orch Leaves, seed Sunny position, light soil, even pure sand. Wind resistant Other species include A. canescens and A. confertifolia E.SH. Azara microphylla Fruit Warm, sheltered position. Most soil E. & D.SH. Berberis spp Barberries Fruit Most soils Species mentioned for their fruit include B. aggregata, B. angulosa, B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. buxifolia, B. canadensis, B. darwinii, B. empetrifolium, B. lycium, B sibirica and B. vulgaris D.CL. Berchemia lineata Fruit Good moist loam D.CL. Berchemia racemosa Leaves, cooked Good moist loam D.T. Betula pendula Silver Birch Leaves, inner bark, sap Well-drained soil. Tolerates bad soils Other Betula spp include B. alleghaniensis, B. lenta, B. nigra, B. papyrifera, B. pubescens and B. utilis D.SH. Broussonettia kazinoki Fruit, flowers, leaves Most soils D.T. Brousonetia papyrifera Paper Mulberry Fruit, leaves Most soils D.SH. Callicarpa americana Fruit Sunny position. Milder areas only D.SH. Callicarpa mollis Fruit Sunny position. Milder areas only E.SH. Calligonum aphyllum Root, young shoots Sunny position. Dryish sandy loam D.SH. Calycanthus floridus Carolina Allspice Bark,a Cinnamon substitute Sunny position. Deep moist light loamy soil D.SH. Calycanthus occidentalis Californian Allspice Bark,a Cinnamon and Allspice substitute Sunny position. Most soils E.SH. Camellia oliefera Camellia Oil from seed Lime free soil. Best in milder areas Other species yielding oil include C. japonica, C. sasanqua D.SH. Caragana arborescens Siberian Pea Shrub Seed, pods Full sun. Light sandy, not rich soil D.SH. Caragana pygmaea Root Full sun. Light sandy, not rich soil D.SH. Caragana sinica Flowers Full sun. Light sandy, not rich soil D.T. Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam Seed Most soils D.T. Carya glabra Pignut Hickory Seed, sap Deep loamy soil. Seed can be sweet or astringent D.T. Carya laciniosa Shellbark Hickory Seed, sap Deep loamy soil. Sunny position D.T. Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory Seed, sap Deep loamy soil. Sunny position Other species include C. buckleyi, C. carolinae-septentrivnalis, C. cathayensis, C. illinoensis, C. megacarpa, C. myristicaeformis, C. ovalis, C.pallida and C. tomentosa D.T. Castanea sativa Sweet Chestnut Seed Sunny position. Most soils but dislikes lime Other species include C. alnifolia, C. crenata, C. dentata, C. henryi, C. mollissima, C. pumila, C. ozarkensis and C. seguinii E.T. Castanopsis cuspidata Seed Best in mild areas E.T. Castanopsis delavayi Seed Good deep loam D.T. Catalpa ovata Flowers, young pods Sunny, sheltered position E.SH. Ceanothus cuneatus Buck Bush Seed Sunny position. Light soil low in lime Other species include C. fendleri and C. integerrimus D.CL. Celastrus flagellaris Young leaves Deep loamy soil D.CL. Celastrus orbiculatus Young leaves Dioecious D.CL. Celastrus scandens Climbing Bittersweet Bark and young shoots Deep loamy soil. Dislikes lime. Dioecious D.T. Celtis occidentalis Sugarberry Fruit, seed Most soils Other species include C. australis, C. bungeana, C. caucasia, C. jessoensis, C. Koraiensis, C. laevigata, C. reticulata, C. tournefortii, C. sinensis E.SH. Cephalotaxus fortunei Chinese Plum Yew Fruit Most soils. Tolerates heavy shade. Dioecious E.SH. Cephalotaxus harringtonia Japanese Plum Yew Fruit, seed Most soils. Tolerates heavy shade. Dioecious E.T. Ceratonia siliqua Carob Seed, seed pod Very mild areas only. Well-drained soil D.T. Cercis canadensis Redbud Flowers Very sunny position. Deep sandy loam D.T. Cercis siliquastrum Judas Tree Flowers, seed pods Very sunny position. Does best on poorish light soil D.SH. Chaenomeles cathayensis Chinese Quince Fruit Sunny position. Most soils if well-drained Other species include C. japonica, C. speciosa E.SH. Chamaerops humilis Dwarf Fan Palm Young shoots Sunny position. Well-drained soil. Mild areas only D.SH. Chionanthus virginicus Fringe Tree Fruit Sunny position E.T. Chrysolepsis chrysantha Seed - sweet tasting Lime-free soil. Sheltered, semi-shady position. Fruits well in Edinburgh D.SH. Clethra barbinervis Leaves Peaty, well-drained, lime-free soil. Mild areas D.SH. Comptonia peregrina asplenifolia Sweet Fern Young fruits Peaty, lime-free soil E.SH. Coprosma species Fruit Mild areas only. All the species have edible fruits E.T. Cordyline australis Cabbage Tree Root, shoots Mild areas. Very wind resistant E.T. Cordyline indivisa Fruit Mild areas. Very wind resistant E.SH. Corema conradii Poverty Grass Fruit Lime-free soil D.SH. Coriaria sinica Fruit Seed is poisonous. Best in milder areas Other species include C. sarmentosa and C. terminalis D.T. Cornus kousa chinense Fruit, young leaves Most soils D.T. Cornus mas Cornelian Cherry Fruit Most soils. Sunny position D.SH. Cornus sanguinea Dogwood Oil from seed Most soils Other species with edible fruits include C. amomum, C. capitata, C. controversa, C. macrophylla, C. occidentalis, C. officinalis and C. stolonifera D.SH. Corylus avellana Hazel Nut Seed, oil from seed Most soils and positions D.SH. Corylus maxima Filberts Seed Most soils and positions Other species include C. americana, C. chinensis, C. colurna, C. cornuta, C. heterophylla, C. jacquemontii, C. pontica, C. sieboldiana mandschurica and C. tibetica E.T. Corynocarpus laevigata New Zealand Laurel Fruit, seed Mild areas only. Seed must be leeched to remove toxins D.SH. Cotoneaster racemiflorus Manna Most soils D.T. Crataegus azarolus Azarole Fruit Sunny position. Most soils D.T. Crataegus douglasii Fruit Sunny position. Most soils D.T. Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn Leaves, fruit Most soils All species of Crataegus have edible fruits though they are often not very desirable. Some of the nicer ones include C. aprica, C. atrosangvinea, C. hupehensis, C. laciniata, C. pensylvanica, C. schraderana, C. succulenta, C. tanacetifolia and C. tomentosa D.T. Cudrania tricuspidata Silk-Worm Thorn Fruit Very hardy. Most soils. Dioecious E.SH. Cyathodes colensoi Fruit Peaty soil E.SH. Cyathodes fraseri Fruit Mild areas only D.T. Cydonia oblonga Quince Fruit Sunny positon. Most soils E.T. Dacrycarpus dacrydioides White Pine Fruit Very mild areas only E.T. Dacrydium cupressinum Rimu Fruit Very mild areas only D.SH. Decaisnea fargesii Fruit Rich moist loamy soil D.SH. Deutzia scabra Young leaves Moist soils D.T. Diospyros kaki Persimmon Fruit All these species are dioecious but female trees can produce seedless fruits without being pollinated. D. daki is best grown on a south-facing wall. D.T. Diospyros lotus Date Plum Fruit D.T. Diospyros virginiana American Persimmon Fruit E.SH. Drimys lanceolata Mountain Pepper Fruit is a pepper substitute Best in mild areas E.SH. Drimys winteri Winter's Bark Bark is a condiment Best in mild areas. Moist soil D.T. Ehretia dicksonii Fruit Succeeds on chalk Other species include E. acuminata and E. elliptica D.SH. Elaeagnus multiflora Fruit Sunny position. Light soil. Very drought and wind resistant Other species include E. angustifolia, E. commutata, E. glabra, E. macrophylla, E. montana, E. pungens and E. umbellata D.SH. Eleutherococcus sieboldianus Leaves Sheltered position, warm loamy soil Other species include E. divaricatus, E. japonicus, E. senticosus, E. sessiliflorus and E. trifoliatus E.SH. Empetrum nigrum Crowberry Fruit Peaty soil. Dioecious Other species include E. hermaphroditum, E. rubrum E.SH. Ephedra distachya Sea Grape Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained soil. E.SH. Ephedra gerardiana Fruit E.SH. Ephedra nevadensis Seed E.SH. Epigaea asiatica Fruit Lime-free humus rich soil. Shade E.SH. Epigaea repens Fruit Lime-free humus rich soil. Shade E.T. Eriobotrya japonica Loquat Fruit - not often borne Well drained soil D.T. Euodia daniellii Oil from fruit Most soils D.T. Euodia fraxinifolia Fruit, oil from seed Most soils. Hardy(?) D.T. Fagus sylvatica Beech Leaves, seed, oil from seed Most soils except heavy wet soils Other species include F. crenata, F. grandifolia, F. japonica, F. longipetiolata, F. lucida and F. orientalis E.T. Feijoa sellowiana Feijoa Fruit, flowers Most soils. Sunny position. Mild areas D.T. Ficus carica Fig Fruit Well-drained soil with lime D.T. Firmiana simplex Seed Sandy loam. Mild areas only D.SH. Forestiera neo-mexicana Fruit - an olive substitute Most soils. Very sunny position D.SH. Forsythia suspensa Young leaves Most soils D.T. Fraxinus ornus Manna Ash Sap Moist soil Other species include F. floribunda and F. rotundifolia D.SH. Fuchsia spp Fuchsia Fruit Well-drained humus-rich soil All species of fuchsia have edible fruits though often of poor quality. Two species reasonably hardy in Britain are F. excorticata and F. magallenica. It is always worthwhile sampling the fruits of the many hardy garden hybrids E.SH. Gaultheria procumbens Checkerberry Fruit, leaves Lime-free soil, some shade E.SH. Gaultheria shallon Shallon Fruit Lime-free soil, some shade Other species include G. adenothrix, G. antipoda, G. fragrantissima, G. hispida, G. hispidula, G. humifusa, G. miqueliana, G. ovatifolia and G. trichophylla D.SH. Gaylussacia baccata Black Huckleberry Fruit Well-drained, humus-rich, lime-free soil Other species include G. brachycera, G. dumosa, G. frondosa and G. ursina E.T. Gevuina avellana Chilean Hazel Seed Mild areas only. Woodland conditions E.T. Ginkgo biloba Maidenhair Tree Seed Well-drained soil. Sheltered position D.T. Gleditschia triacanthos Honey Locust Seed pod - not often produced Sunny position, good loamy soil D.SH. Grewia optiva Fruit Not very hardy D.T. Gymnocladus dioica Kentucky Coffee Tree Seed pods - not often borne Rich, deep soil E.SH. Halimione portulacoides Sea Purslane Leaves D.SH. Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel Seed Most soils if moist D.SH. Helwingia japonica Leaves, young shoots, flowers Most soils. Dioecious D.SH. Hibiscus syriacus Leaves, flowers, oil from seed Most soils except badly drained ones. Sunny position D.SH. Hippophae rhamnoides Sea Buckthorn Fruit Most soils, sunny position. Dioecious D.T. Hippophae salicifolia Fruit Most soils, sunny position. Dioecious E.CL. Holboellia coriacea Fruit Most soils. Prefers a shady wall or growing into a tree Other species include H. grandiflora and H. latifolia D.SH. Holodiscus discolor Fruit Thin woodland. Most soils D.SH. Holodiscus dumosus Fruit Most soils D.T. Hovenia dulcis Japanese Raisin Tree Fruit Sandy loam D.SH. Hydrangea macrophylla Leaves - sweet Well drained, but not dry, loamy soil Other species include H. hirta and H. serrata E.SH. Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop Leaves Sunny position. Light dry soil containing lime D.T. Idesia polycarpa Fruit Most soils. Dioecious E.SH. Illicium anisatum Star Anise Fruit - a flavouring Light moist peaty loam. E.SH. Illicium floridanum Aniseed Tree Used as a flavouring Sheltered position. Mild areas D.SH. Indigofera decora Seed Sunny position. Most well-drained soils. Mild areas E.T. Jubaea chilensis Sugar Palm Sap, seed, oil from seed Very mild areas only D.T. Juglans ailantifolia Japanese Walnut Seed Deep loamy soil. The hardiest walnut D.T. Juglans cinerea Butternut Seed, sap, oil from seed Deep loamy soil. Very cold resistant D.T. Juglans regia Walnut Seed, sap, oil from seed Most soils if deep and well drained Other species include J. cathayensis, J. hindsii, J. mandschurica, J. microcarpa and J. nigra E.SH. Juniperus communis Juniper Fruit - a flavouring Most soils. Likes lime E.T. Juniperus deppeana Aligator Juniper Fruit - sweet Very sunny, hot and dry position. Likes lime E.T. Juniperus drupacea Syrian Juniper Fruit - sweet Well-drained soils. Likes lime Other species include J. californica, J. conferta, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J. osteosperma, J. recurva, J. rigida, J. scopulorum, J. tetragona and J. virginiana D.SH. Kerria japonica Young leaves Most soils D.T. Koelreuteria paniculata Leaves, berries Most soils. Sunny position E.CL. Lapageria rosea Chilean Bellflower Fruit Mild areas. Shady position. Lime-free soil E.CL. Lardizabala biternata Fruit Mild areas. Well-drained sandy loam. Dioecious E.T. Laurelia serrata Peruvian Nutmeg Seed - a spice Mild areas only. Sheltered position. Dioecious E.T. Laurus nobilis Bay Tree Leaves - a flavouring Most soils. Sun or light shade. Dioecious E.SH. Lavandula angustifolia Lavander Leaves - very aromatic Sunny position. Most soils if well-drained D.SH. Lespedeza bicolor Seed, young stems and leaves Light soil. Sunny position D.SH. Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Young shoots Light soil. Sunny position D.SH. Lindera benzoin Spice Bush Bark - allspice substitute Lime-free soil. Dioecious D.T. Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Tree Bark - a flavouring Rich, deep soil. Sheltered position E.T. Lithocarpus densiflorus Seed - oily Hardy at Kew E.T. Lithocarpus edulis Seed Mild areas D.SH. Lonicera coerulea edulis Fruit Sunny position Other species include L. angustifolia, L. chrysantha, L. gracilipes, L. involucrata and L. villosa D.SH. Lycium barbarum Box Thorn Fruit, young shoots Shoots should be used with caution. Sunny position. Well-drained soild. Very wind resistant D.SH. Lycium pallidum Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained soil D.SH. Maackia amurensis Young leaves Sunny position. Most soils E.SH. Mahonia aquifolia Oregon Grape Fruit Most soils and situations. Tolerates heavy shade Other species include M. haematocarpa, M. nepaulensis, M. nervosa, M. nevinii, M. pinnata, M. repens and M. trifoliolata D.T. Malus domestica Apple Fruit Sunny position All species of Malus have edible fruits though they are often not very palatable. Some of the most palatable include M. floribunda, M. fusca, M. praecox, M. prunifolia rinki, M. sieversii and M. trilobata E.SH. Margyricarpus pinnatus Pearl Berry Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained, not rich soil D.T. Melia azedarach Bead Tree Leaves Mild areas only D.T. Melicytus ramiflorus Fruit Mild areas only. Dioecious D.SH. Menziesia ferruginea Fruit Sun or light shade. Well-drained lime-free soil D.T. Mespilus germanica Medlar Fruit, bletted Most soils. Sunny position D.CL. Metaplexis japonica Root, young leaves, fruit Most soils. Mild areas D.SH. Micromeria juliana Leaves - a savoury flavouring Well-drained soils E.SH. Mitchella repens Partridge Berry Fruit Lime-free soil. Shady position D.T. Morus alba White Mulberry Fruit, young leaves Sunny position. Warm, well-drained soil D.T. Morus nigra Black Mulberry Fruit Sunny position. Warm, well-drained soil Other species include M. australis, M. mongolica, M. rubra and M. serrata D.CL. Muehlenbeckia adpressa Fruit Very mild areas only D.SH. Myrica gale Sweet Gale Leaves and berries - a flavouring Most soils, preferably lime-free. Dioecious E.SH. Myrica rubra Fruit Mild areas. Lime-free soil Other species used as a flavouring include M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica E.SH. Myrsine africana Fruit E.SH. Myrtus communis Myrtle Fruit - a flavouring Mild areas. Most soils E.SH. Myrtus luma Fruit - sweet Mild areas. Most soils Other species include M. nummularia and M. ugni E.SH. Nandina domestica Sacred Bamboo Fruit, young leaves Best in mild areas. Rich soil. Sunny position D.SH. Nemopanthus mucronata Fruit Cold damp soil D.T. Nyssa sylvatica Tupelo Fruit Dislikes lime D.SH. Oemleria cerasiformis Oso Berry Fruit Most soils. Dioecious E.T. Olea europaea Olive Fruit, oil from fruit Sunny position. Mild areas only D.SH. Oplopanax horridus Young shoots Cool moist soil. Dense shade E.SH. Osteomeles schwerinae Fruit Mild areas D.T. Oxydendron arboreum Sorrel Tree Leaves Well drained lime-free soil. Likes shade D.CL. Parthenocissus quinquefolia Fruit, stalks Self-supports on walls D.CL. Parthenocissus tricuspidata Sap Self-supports on walls D.CL. Passiflora mollissima Fruit - not freely borne Best in mild areas Other species include P. edulis and P. incarnata D.SH. Peraphyllum ramosissimum Fruit - rarely borne Very sunny position E.SH. Pernettya leucocarpa Fruit Lime-free well-drained soil. Dioecious E.SH. Pernettya pumila Fruit Lime-free well-drained soil. Dioecious E.T. Photinia arbutifolia Californian Maybush Fruit Mild areas E.T. Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Young shoots Wet soils. Tolerates exposed positions E.T. Pinus albicaulis Whitebark Pine Seed Open, well-drained soil. Best in cold areas E.T. Pinus koraiensis Korean Pine Seed Best in west and north Britain. Open, well-drained soil E.T. Pinus pinea Stone Pine Seed Succeeds on chalk Other species include P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. cembra, P. cembroides, P. coulteri, P. culminicola, P. densiflora, P. edulis, P. flexilis, P. gerardiana, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana (sap also is edible), P. monophylla, P. monticolor, P. ponderosa, P. pumila, P. quadrifolia, P. remota, P. sibirica and P. torreyana E.T. Pinus sabiniana Digger Pine Seed Sunny position. Most soils D.T. Pistacia chinensis Seed, young shoots and leaves Most soils. Sunny position E.SH. Pistacia lentiscus Mastic Oil from seed Mild areas. Sunny position. Most soils D.T. Pistacia terebinthus Fruit, oil from seed Most soils. Sunny position E.SH. Pittosporum phillyraeoides Seed - bitter Most soils E.SH. Podocarpus nivalis Fruit Mild areas. Dioecious D.T. Podocarpus totara Totara Fruit Best in mild areas. Dioecious D.T. Poncirus trifoliata Fruit, young leaves Most soils. Sunny position D.T. Populus wislizenii Catkins Dislikes shallow or dry soils D.T. Populus sieboldii Young leaves and shoots Other species with edible leaves include P. simonii and P. sargentii D.T. Populus fremontii Inner bark, catkins Dislikes shallow or dry soils The following also have edible inner bark: P. angustifolia, P. alba, P. deltoides, P. grandidentata, P. sargentii, P. tremula and P. tremuloides D.SH. Prinsepia utilis Fruit, oil from seed Sunny position. Light, not too fertile soil Other species with edible fruits include P. sinensis and P. uniflora E.T. Prumnopitys andina Plum-Fruited Yew Fruit, seed Most soils. Dioecious E.T. Prumnopitys spicata Matai Fruit Mild areas. Dioecious D.T. Prunus armeniaca Apricot Fruit, oil from seed Warm sunny position. Some lime in the soil D.T. Prunus avium Bird Cherry Fruit, gum from trunk Sunny position. Well-drained soil. Parent of Sweet Cherries D.T. Prunus cerasifera Cherry Plum Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained soil with some lime D.T. Prunus cerasus Sour Cherry Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed Most soils. Sunny position. Parent of many cherries D.T. Prunus domestica Plum Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed Sunny position. Well-drained soil with some lime D.T. Prunus dulcis Almond Seed, gum from trunk, oil from seed Sunny sheltered position. Well-drained soil with some lime D.T. Prunus insititia Damson/Bullace Fruit Most soils. Sunny position D.T. Prunus persica Peach/Nectarine Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed Sunny sheltered position. Well-drained soil All species of Prunus contain quantities of prussic acid, especially in the leaves and seeds. This is easily detected by a bitter almond-like flavour. If this flavour is not noticed or is only very mild then the fruit or seed of any species is edible though not always very palatable. Other species worth trying include P. americana, P. canescens, P. dasycarpa, P. divaricata, P. grayana, P. humilis, P. laurocerasus, P. maritima, P. mira, P. mume, P orthosepala, P. padus, P. pseudocerasus, P. pumila, P. salicifolia, P. serotina, P. simonii, P. spinosa, P. subcordata, P. tomentosa, P. virginiana and P. watsonii D.T. Pseudocydonia sinensis Fruit Sunny position. Most soils E.T. Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Young shoot tips Moist soils. Dislikes lime D.SH. Ptelea baldwinii Seed Most soils if well-drained D.T. Pterocarya fraxinifolia Wing Nut Seed Sunny position. Rich soil, preferably moist D.T. Punica granatum Pomegranate Fruit - not usually borne Well-drained soil E.SH. Pyracantha angustifolia Fruit Full sun, well-drained soil. Tolerates chalk E.SH. Pyracantha coccinea Pyracanth Fruit Full sun, well-drained soil. Tolerates chalk D.SH. Pyrularia pubera Oil Nut Fruit, oil from fruit Parasitic on roots of trees and shrubs D.T. Pyrus communis Pear Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained soils All species yield more or less edible fruits. Some of those worth trying include P. pashia, P. pyrifolia and P. ussuriensis E.T. Quercus ilex Holm Oak Seed Most soils. Very wind resistant D.T. Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak Seed Good deep loam The seed of all species is a good source of carbohydrates although in many species the seed is also rich in tannin which is bitter and indigestible. Unfortunately, some of most palatable species do not fruit well in Britain though the following could be worth trying: Q. alba, Q. douglasii, Q. emoryi, Q. gambelii, Q. muhlenbergii and Q. virginiana D.T. Rhamnus caroliniana Indian Cherry Fruit Most soils. Might not be very hardy D.T. Rhamnus purshiana Cascara Sagrada Fruit Most soils E.SH. Rhaphiolepis indica Indian Hawthorn Fruit Mild areas only. Sunny position, fertile soil E.SH. Rhaphiolepis umbellata Seed Sunny position, fertile soil D.SH. Rhus glabra Smooth Sumach Fruit Sunny position. Most soils The fruit of the above species is often steeped in warm water for 10 minutes to make a very refreshing drink. Other species with edible fruits that can also be used in this way include R. aromatica, R. copallina, R. integrifolia, R. punjabensis, R. trilobata and R. typhina D.SH. Ribes divaricatum Worcesterberry Fruit Most soils D.SH. Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant Fruit Most soils if rich in humus D.SH. Ribes rubrum Redcurrant Fruit Most soils D.SH. Ribes uva-crispa Gooseberry Fruit Most soils. Dislikes clay The fruit of all species of Ribes is edible but not always very palatable. Some other species worth trying include R. aciculare, R. altissimum, R. americanum, R. aureum, R. bracteosum, R. cynosbati, R. hirtellum, R. longeracemosum, R. meyeri, R. montigenum, R. odoratum, R. oxyacanthoides, R. palczewskii, R. pauciflorum, R. procumbens, R. rotundifolium, R. sachalinense, R. sanguineum and R. valdivianum D.T. Robinia pseudoacacia Locust Flowers. Seed - must be cooked Most soils D.SH. Rosa rugosa Ramanas Rose Fruit, seed, flowers Most soils D.SH. Rosa villosa Apple Rose Fruit, seed Most soils. Sunny position The fruit of all species of Rosa is more or less edible, though the flesh is often very thin and there is a layer of seed hairs just below the flesh that can cause irritation if eaten. The following species are also worth trying: R. acicularis, R. californica, R. canina, R. centifolia, R. macrophylla, R. majalis, R. nutkana and R. sericea E.SH. Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Leaves Sunny position. Light, dry soil D.CL. Rubus discolor Himalayan Giant Blackberry Fruit Most soils D.CL. Rubus fruticosus Blackberry Fruit, root Most soils D.SH. Rubus idaeus Raspberry Fruit Dislikes very heavy soils D.SH. Rubus laciniatus Parsley-Leaved Blackberry Fruit Most soils D.SH. Rubus loganobaccus Loganberry Fruit Well-drained soil D.SH. Rubus phoenicolasius Japanese Wineberry Fruit Most soils A very large genus, the fruit of all species is more or less edible. Some of the most noteworthy include R. allegheniensis, R. amabilis, R. biflorus, R. caesius, R. corchorifolius, R. flagelliflorus, R. ichangensis, R. innominatus, R. kuntzeanus, R. lasiostylus, R. leucodermis, R. occidentalis, R. palmatus, R. parviflorus, R. setchuensis and R. tricolor D.T. Salix daphnoides Inner bark, young flowering shoots Most soils. Dioecious D.T. Salix alba White Willow Leaves, inner bark Rich soil. Dioecious Salix alba is only used for food in times of scarcity. The following species have also been used: S. babylonica, S. bakko, S. chaenomeloides, S. gracilistyla, S. japonica and S. nipponica D.SH. Sambucus nigra Elder Flowers, fruit Most soils and positions Other species include S. caerulea, S. callicarpa, S. canadensis, S. melanocarpa, S. pubens and S. racemosa D.SH. Sarcobatus vermiculata Greasewood Seed, twigs Most soils D.T. Sassafras albidum Sassafras Leaves, bark and fruit - a condiment Deep fertile soil, sheltered position. Dioecious E.SH. Satureia montana Winter Savoury Leaves, a flavouring Well-drained poor stony soil D.CL. Schisandra chinensis Fruit, young leaves Rich soil Other species with edible fruits include S. grandiflora, S. henryi and S. repanda D.SH. Shepherdia argentea Buffalo Berry Fruit Well-drained moist soil D.SH. Shepherdia canadensis Fruit - rarely borne Most well-drained soils D.CL. Sinofranchetia chinensis Fruit Most soils D.CL. Sinomenium acutum Root, leaves Most soils E.CL. Smilax aspera Sarsaparilla Root - used in soft drinks. Shoots Very mild areas only. Any soil. Dioecious D.CL. Smilax bona-nox Root, young shoots Any soil. Dioecious D.CL. Smilax china China Root Root, young shoots, fruit Any soil. Dioecious Other species with similar uses include S. hispida, S. laurifolia, S. pseudo-china and S. rotundifolia E.SH. Solanum aviculare Kangaroo Apple Fruit Very mild areas. Any soil D.T. Sorbus aria Whitebeam Fruit - bletted Sunny position. Most soils D.T. Sorbus aucuparia Rowan Fruit The variety Edulis is best. Most soils in cool position. Very wind resistant D.T. Sorbus domestica Service Tree Fruit - bletted Sunny position. Well-drained soil Other species worth trying include S. americana, S. commixta, S. devoniensis, S. gracilis, S. hybrida, S. intermedia, S. lanata, S. mougeotii, S. sambucifolia and S. torminalis E.CL. Stauntonia hexaphylla Fruit Mild areas only. Dioecious D.SH. Tamarix gallica Manna Plant Manna from stem Sunny position. Deep loamy soil. Very wind resistant E.T. Taxus baccata Yew Fruit - sweet Most soils. Shade tolerant. Leaves and seeds poisonous Other species also with poisonous leaves and seeds but edible fruits include T. brevifolia, T, canadensis and T. cuspidata E.SH. Thymus vulgaris Common Thyme Leaves Dry sunny position Other species include T. capitata, T. drucei and T. serpyllum D.T. Tilia x europaea Common Lime Leaves, sap.Flowers a chocolate substitute Sunny position. Most soils. Wind resistant Other species include T. americana, T. cordata, T. japonica, T. platyphyllos and T. mongolica D.T. Toona sinensis Chinese Cedar Leaves and young shoots Thrives on chalk E.T. Torreya nucifera Kaya Seed, oil from seed Most soils. Prefers heavy shade Other species include T. californica, T. fargesii, T. grandis, T. jackii and T. yunnanensis E.T. Trachycarpus fortunei Chusan Palm Young flower buds Rich soil. Sheltered position E.SH. Triphasia aurantiola Lime Berry Fruit Very mild areas only. Good loamy soil E.T. Tsuga heterophylla Inner bark Dislikes chalk. Prefers areas of heavy rainfall Inner bark is usually only eaten in times of shortage. Other species include T. canadensis and T. mertensiana D.T. Ulmus glabra Wych Elm Leaves, immature fruits Most soils Dutch Elm Disease has destroyed most Elm trees in Britain. However the trees often survive as suckers and a few forms are more resistant to the disease. Other species mentioned as edible include U. japonica, U. parvifolia, U. procera and U. pumila E.T. Umbellularia californica California Laurel Seed, leaves - a condiment Dislikes chalk. Prefers a moist soil D.SH. Vaccinium corymbosum Blueberry Fruit Acid soils only E.SH. Vaccinium macrocarpon Cranberry Fruit Moist or semi-boggy acid peaty soil D.SH. Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry Fruit Moist acid peaty soil. Best in an exposed position E.SH. Vaccinium oxycoccus Small Cranberry Fruit Moist or semi-boggy acid peaty soil. Sunny position D.SH. Vaccinium praestans Fruit Moist acid soil. Best in Scotland and northern Britain Vaccinium is a large genus, all the species bearing more or less edible fruits. Some of the nicer ones include V. angustifolium, V. ashei, V. atrococcum, V. caespitosum, V. canadense, V. deliciosum, V. floribundum, V. hirsutum, V. oldhamii, V ovatum, V. padifolium, V. parvifolium, V. scoparium and V. vacillans D.SH. Viburnum edule Fruit Dislikes poor soils D.SH. Viburnum lantanoides Hobbleberry Fruit Woodlands. Rich soil D.T. Viburnum prunifolium Stagberry Fruit Dislikes poor dry soils Other species include V. cassinoides, V. cotinifolium, V. dilatatum, V. erosum, V. farreri, V. grandiflorum, V. lentago, V nudum, V. opulus. V oulus americanum and V. sieboldii D.SH. Vitex agnus-castus Chaste Tree Fruit - pepper substitute Mild areas. Warm position D.CL. Vitis vinifera Grape Leaves, tendrils, sap, fruit, oil from seed Sunny, warm position Many other species are also edible though fruiting is problematic in Britain. They include V. aestivalis, V. cordifolia, V. davidii, V. riparia, V. rotundifolia and V. rupestris E.T. Weinmannia racemosa Fruit Mild areas only. Light rich soil D.T. Xanthoceras sorbifolium Leaves, flowers, fruit Warm sunny position E.SH. Yucca filamentosa Spoonleaf Yucca Fruit Sunny position. Well-drained soil. Dislikes peaty or chalky soils E.SH. Yucca glauca Soapweed Fruit, flower stalks, flowers Sunny position. Well-drained soil. Dislikes peaty or chalky soils E.SH. Yucca gloriosa Root Sunny position. Well-drained soil. Dislikes peaty or chalky soils E.SH. Yucca baccata Spanish Bayonet Fruit, seed, flowers and stalks Mild areas. Sunny position. Well-drained soil Other species include Y. angustissima, Y. harrimaniae and Y. whipplei D.SH. Zanthoxylum piperitum Pepper Tree Young leaves, seed and bark - a spice Other species include Z. alatum, Z. americanum, Z. planispinum, Z. schinifolium and Z. simulans D.T. Ziziphus zizyphus Jujube Fruit Mild areas only. Most soils
When using this list it is important to remember that it can only contain a small portion of the information we hold on each plant. You are stronglt advised to seek more information on any plant before making use of it in the manner suggested. This is especially important with any of the comments on edibility. Information sheets on individual species can be obtained from Plants for a Future website.